Never open the door without looking through the peephole and asking who came.
Do not open the door to anyone, even if these people introduced themselves as public utilities, police or postal workers. Ask (taking into account the time of the arrival of the parents) them to come later (to the arrival of the parents).
If you are asked to bring a drink or call from you, explain how to get to the nearest store and pay phone.
Never tell anyone about the daily routine of your family members.
When leaving the apartment, before opening the door, look through the peephole for strangers behind the door.
Open the door and leave the apartment, close the door behind you.
If you went out and saw strangers in the entrance, go back to the apartment.
46. You are heading to the cinema (stadium, etc.). What are your personal safety practices in a public place?
Once at the venue of a mass event, do not strive to get into the most dense crowd of people in a limited space.
If you are faced with poor organization of a mass event, crowded aisles, violation of fire safety rules and public order, it is better to leave this event in advance.
Never, under any circumstances, engage in an altercation in a public place. If a tipsy person sticks to you, it is better to give him a place and find another one.
47. You are in a crowd. What are your personal safety measures?
Do not go against the movement of the crowd, but adhere to the general speed of movement.
Do not try to avoid the center of the crowd and its edge, dodge everything that is motionless along the way (pillars, pedestals, trees).
Do not cling to anything with your hands.
Restrain pushes from the side and behind with arms bent at the elbows and pressed to the body.
Be calm and peaceful, do not make sudden movements.
Don’t give in to the mood of the crowd.
Do not discuss what is happening, try to follow the instructions of the organizers of the movement or law enforcement officers.
In no case should you try to pick up fallen things (the main thing in a crowd is not to fall).
48. You have to walk in the dark from one part of the city (settlement) to another. What are your personal safety actions when driving on the street(s)?
You should avoid the shortest routes that run through backyards, wastelands, construction sites, forest plantations and other sparsely populated places.
It is necessary to know the way home well, to have several routes of movement.
If you find yourself in a deserted dark quarter, go in the middle of the street.
You need to know where the nearest police station is on your way.
If you need to return home after dark, call home to be met.
In the dark, it is better to walk down the street in a group of people who got off the bus, metro, train.
It is better to walk along the underground passage in a group of people.
Walk safely on the edge of the sidewalk, facing traffic.
If you see a group of suspicious people or a drunk ahead, it is better to cross to the other side of the street or change the route.
If someone tries to talk to you, do not get involved in the conversation.
Pretend to be in a hurry and walk in the direction of a well-lit and crowded place.
If the car starts moving slowly next to you, it’s wiser to cross over to the other side.
49. You are in a public place (cinema, museum, train station) and there is a fire. What are your actions to maintain personal safety in a similar situation?
When entering any public place (cinema, railway station, museum, theatre), you should pay attention to the location of the main and emergency exits and think over the nearest way to the exit.
Hearing the cries of “Fire!”, Maintain restraint and calmness, assess the situation. Standing still, look around, noticing a telephone or a fire alarm button, report a fire to the fire brigade.
When filling the room with smoke or in the absence of lighting, move towards the exit, holding on to the walls, handrails. Breathe through a handkerchief or sleeve.
Once in a crush, bend your elbows and press them to your sides, clenching your fists.
If you are in a multi-story building, do not try to use the elevators,
you have to go down the stairs.
Do not try to jump out of a window from a great height.
If it is impossible to go outside, retreat to rooms not occupied by fire, close the door tightly and wait for the help of firefighters there.
50. While watching a TV show, the image on the TV screen disappeared, and you smelled smoke. What are your actions to maintain personal safety in a similar situation?
If you smell smoke, turn off the TV; if access to the socket is not possible, turn off the electricity automatically in the electrical panel.
Report a fire to the fire brigade by calling 01, indicating the exact address (street, house and apartment number, floor, entrance, code) and what is burning.
If after a blackout the burning does not stop, you should fill the back wall of the TV with water. At the same time, it is better to stand on the side of the TV in order to avoid poisoning when extinguishing a fire on the TV, breathe through a damp towel (cloth).
After extinguishing the fire before the arrival of firefighters, ventilate the room.
Inform parents about the fire, do not touch anything until the arrival of firefighters, who will establish the cause of the fire and give their opinion.
51. While relaxing in nature, you were caught by a thunderstorm. What are your actions to maintain personal safety in a similar situation?
Do not hide under tall trees, especially under oak, poplar, spruce, pine.
If a thunderstorm caught in an open space, it is better to sit down in a dry hole.
You shouldn’t run.
If a thunderstorm caught you in the water while swimming, you need to go ashore.
Lightning shelter should be sought on hillsides or in small depressions with dry rocky ground.
In a wooded area, it is better to take cover in dense bushes.
Do not stay near water bodies or in open areas.
52. The storm started when you were at home alone. What are your actions to maintain personal safety in a similar situation?
If you notice a thunderstorm approaching, turn off all electrical appliances, close windows and doors (air flow is a good conductor of electricity).
The safest place in the house during a thunderstorm is in the middle of the room, away from radiators, taps, and stoves.
Try not to pick up metal objects.
53. During a thunderstorm, ball lightning flew into the house. What are your actions to maintain personal safety in a similar situation?
If ball lightning (a brightly glowing ball) flew into the house, you can’t run so as not to create air tremors.
You should slowly retreat into another room, covering your face with your hands from the explosion.
Lie on the floor, hide under the table, bed and wait 10-15 minutes – during this time the fireball will either disappear or explode.
54. While relaxing in nature, you decide to swim in an unfamiliar body of water. What are your personal safety practices while swimming?
It is forbidden:
– enter the water sweaty and hot, immediately after sunbathing or after outdoor games, you need to cool in the shade;
– enter the water immediately after eating, a break of at least 60 minutes is required;
– dive and jump into the water in unfamiliar places;
– swim behind the buoys;
– swim out to the ship’s course and approach the ships;
– arrange games in the water associated with seizures;
– swim on air mattresses or cameras;
– give false signals for help.
55. Being near a reservoir, you see that a person is drowning. List your actions to save a drowning person.
Attract the attention of others by shouting “A man is drowning!”, Ask to call an ambulance.
Take off your clothes and shoes, swim or on any watercraft to rush to the aid of a drowning person.
If you have a life buoy, a rubber bladder, an air mattress, plastic bottles at hand, throw them into the water as close as possible to the drowning person.
If a person is in the water vertically or lies on his stomach, swim up to him from behind and take either his hair, or put your hand under his chin, raise his head and turn him over on his back so that his face is above the water.
If the person is lying on their back, swim up from the side of the head. Do not let the drowning person grab the rescuer by the hand, neck – dive under him and lightly hit the chin from below, turning his back to himself. Assess your strengths.
Remember: the actions of the rescuer must not bring him
If a person went under water, try to notice the place of his dive according to the landmarks on the shore. Then start
look for a drowned person under water. Use the help of others whenever possible.
Having found a person under water, grab him by the hair and, abruptly pushing off from the bottom, float to the surface.
Remember: the rescuer must be larger and stronger than the drowning one!
If the drowned person is not breathing, take a few breaths from mouth to mouth right in the water; then, grabbing him by the chin with one hand, swim to the shore.
If there is a boat, drag the rescued person into it (only from the stern!). Try to reach the shore as soon as possible, without stopping artificial ventilation of the lungs.
On the shore, provide first aid to a person, wait for the arrival of an ambulance.
56. While walking along the shore of a deep reservoir, you stumbled and fell into cold water. What are your actions to save your own life in a similar situation?
Once in cold water, do not take off your clothes. This will slow down the cooling process of the body.
If the leg cramps, call nearby people for help.
Then try to take a deep breath of air, relax and freely dive into the water face down.
Grasp the shin of the closed leg with both hands under water, bend the knee with force, and then straighten the leg with the help of the hands, doing this several times until you can hold your breath. If the convulsions continue, pinch the shin until it hurts, ask the people who are saving you to dive in and bite it.
After the spasms stop, change the style of swimming or lie on your back for a while, massaging your leg with your hands, then slowly swim to the shore.
Choking on water, do not panic, try to turn around with your back to the wave, press your arms bent at the elbows to the lower part of your chest and take a few sharp exhalations, helping yourself with your hands. Then clear the nose of water and make several swallowing movements. After restoring breathing, lie on your stomach and move to the shore, if necessary, call people for help.
57. Suddenly, a fire broke out in the bus in which you were traveling. What are your actions to save your own life in a similar situation?
In the event of a fire in public transport, it is necessary to immediately inform the driver and passengers about the fire, demand to stop the transport and open the doors.
When locking the doors for evacuation from the vehicle interior, use emergency hatches in the roof and exits through the side windows (if necessary, you can knock out the windows with your feet).
When evacuating, do not panic and follow the instructions
58. You were in the area of an earthquake or learned about its approach. What are your steps for earthquake early warning?
Take with you the necessary things, documents, valuables, a supply of food.
Dress according to the season and temperature, turn off the heaters, gas, TV, refrigerator, put out the stove.
Leave the apartment and go outside.
After leaving the building, move away from it to an open place away from electrical wires, cornices, glass.
59. The earthquake is over. What are your actions to maintain personal safety in a similar situation?
Before entering any building, make sure that it does not threaten the collapse of stairs, walls and ceilings; do not approach obviously damaged buildings.
Open flames (matches, candles, torches, etc.) must not be used in a destroyed room due to the danger of an explosion of accumulated gases.
Be careful near broken and bare electrical wires, do not let younger children near them.
Returning to the apartment, do not turn on electricity, gas and plumbing until their serviceability is checked by the utility services.
Do not drink water from damaged (flooded) wells until its suitability has been verified by the sanitary and epidemiological service.
With a large number of dead people or domestic animals and the danger of an epidemic during
work to eliminate the consequences of the disaster, wear rubber boots, gloves and a cotton-gauze bandage.
60. During an earthquake, you were covered with rubble of a building and earth. What are your actions to save your own life in a similar situation?
Try not to lose heart, breathe deeply and evenly, prepare to endure hunger and thirst.
Get people’s attention with your voice and knock. To detect you with a metal detector, move any metal object (ring, keys, etc.) left and right.
If pressed down by the ground, try to roll over on your stomach to relieve pressure on the chest and abdominal cavity. Pressed hands and feet are often rubbed, massaged, restoring blood circulation.
If you are very thirsty, put a small smooth stone or piece of handkerchief in your mouth and suck it, breathing through your nose.
If the space around you is relatively free, do not light matches, candles, conserve oxygen.
Try with the help of improvised items (boards, furniture, bricks, etc.) to strengthen the ceiling from collapse and wait for help. Keep warm with clothes, paper, any suitable items.
If a decision is made to independently get to the surface, move carefully, try not to cause a new collapse, navigate by the movement of air coming from outside.
Crawling through a narrow hole, relax your muscles, press your elbows to your sides, pushing off the floor like a turtle.
61. You, crossing a reservoir in the winter season, fell through the ice. What are your actions to save your own life in a similar situation?
Keep your composure!
You should not randomly flounder, lean with the whole weight of the body on the edge of the ice, which may turn out to be fragile and break off.
Try to grab the edge of the ice, rest against it with a sharp object (knife, screwdriver). Then lean on the ice with your elbow, move your body to a horizontal position
(feet should be on the surface of the water). Carefully pull one leg onto the ice, then the body and the other leg.
Without getting up, without sudden movements, roll back (creep away) as far as possible from a dangerous place.
Try to warm up as soon as possible.
62. In front of your eyes, a man fell through the ice. There is no one else besides you. What are your actions in helping a person who has fallen through the ice?
To approach a person who has fallen through the ice only lying down, crawling, it is better to lean on the board (skis).
If there are two rescuers, then one person takes a comrade by the legs, and he, in turn, holds out his hand to the one in trouble.
Be sure to keep the victim warm.
63. A signal about the approach of a hurricane was received by the RSChS warning system. What are your actions to ensure personal safety under threat and during a hurricane?
With the receipt of a signal about the approach of a hurricane, storm, tornado, it is necessary:
– close windows and doors on the windward side of buildings, and open them on the leeward side;
– remove things from balconies and window sills that can be picked up by the air flow;
– take cover in protective structures (when warning about a hurricane, storm), in basement (underground) structures (when warning about a tornado).
If you find yourself in open space during a storm or hurricane, you must:
– take cover in a ravine, pit, ditch, road ditch;
– lie down on the bottom of the shelter and cling tightly to the ground;
– avoid being on bridges, pipelines.
64. There was a message about the risk of flooding in your city. Your home is in a declared flood zone. What are your personal safety actions in the event of a threat and during a flood?
With advance warning of the threat of flooding before evacuation, you must:
– turn off water, gas and electricity;
– extinguish burning heating stoves;
– move valuable items and things to the upper floors of the building.
When you receive an evacuation signal, you should bring with you:
– the necessary documents placed in a waterproof bag;
– money and valuables;
– a medical kit;
– a set of outerwear and shoes according to the season;
– bed linen and toiletries;
– A three-day supply of food.
65. There was a message about the danger of an earthquake in your locality. Your house falls into the zone of a declared earthquake. What are your personal safety actions in case of an earthquake threat?
Having received a warning about the threat of an earthquake, turn off gas, water, electricity, put out fires in stoves, close windows, balconies (loggias).
Notify neighbors about the danger, take with you the necessary things, documents, money, water, food and, having locked the apartment with a key, go outside; hold younger children by the hand or in their arms.
Pay attention to the behavior of animals: before an earthquake, dogs howl, cats carry their offspring outside, and even mice run out of houses.
Choose a place away from buildings and power lines and stay there, listening to information on a portable radio.
Respond immediately to external signs of an earthquake: ground or building vibrations, glass rattling, chandeliers swinging, cracks in plaster.
Remember: the greatest danger comes from falling objects, parts of the ceiling, walls, balconies, etc.!
Do not return home until the announcement of the absence of the threat of an earthquake. Write down the telephone number of the seismic station.
66. The earthquake started when you were in the apartment. What are your actions to save your own life after the first earthquake?
At the first push, try to immediately leave the building within 15-20 seconds using the stairs or through the windows of the first floor (it is dangerous to use the elevator).
Going downstairs, on the go knock on the doors of neighboring apartments, loudly notifying people about the need to leave the building.
If you had to stay in the apartment, stand in the doorway or in the corner of the room (near the main wall), away from windows, lamps, cabinets, hanging shelves and mirrors. Beware of the collapse of pieces of plaster, glass, bricks, etc., hide under a table or bed, turn away from the windows and cover your head with your hands, avoid going out onto the balcony.
As soon as the tremors stop, without panicking, leave the building up the stairs as soon as possible, pressing your back against the wall.
If there is such an opportunity, try to turn off gas, water, electricity before leaving, take a first-aid kit on duty, necessary things with you. Close the door with a key.
Help children and the elderly to leave the building (if necessary, break the doors).
Provide first aid to the wounded, call an ambulance.
To take part in the demolition of rubble and the extraction of victims from under the rubble of buildings, using vehicles, crowbars, shovels, car jacks and other improvised means.
Report the presence of victims to the headquarters for the elimination of the consequences of the earthquake (the nearest fire station, police station, military unit, etc.).
Maintain calm and order, demand the same from others.
Together with neighbors, stop the spread of panic rumors, cases of robbery, looting, violation of the law; listen to messages on the local radio.
When your house is destroyed, go to the collection point for medical and material assistance in the middle of the street, bypassing buildings, poles and power lines.
67. You ended up in a mountainous area during mudflows and rockfalls. What are your actions to save your own life?
If there is a threat of an approaching mudflow or a landslide is predicted, warn others and leave the premises as soon as possible.
Move away from buildings, rocks, embankments, gorges. If it is impossible to leave the direction of the rockfall, try to hide behind rock ledges, trees, etc.
Provide assistance to people caught in a mudflow, in the area of its slowdown, using poles, boards, ropes and other improvised means. Pull the victims out of the mud stream in the direction of its movement, gradually approaching the edge. To help endure the sick and people who are unable to move independently.
When filling up the houses in which there were people with earth and stones, call the neighbors for help and help the injured get out of there, call an ambulance.
Report the incident by phone or through a messenger to the nearest fire station, where there are means to rescue people from the rubble.
68. You are relaxing by the sea when a tsunami is reported. What are your actions to maintain personal safety in the event of a tsunami threat?
Learn to recognize earthquakes that threaten a tsunami (more than five points):
— rattling glass;
– swinging chandeliers;
– there are cracks in the plaster of buildings;
– the vibration of the soil interferes with walking and creates a feeling of sea rolling.
Watch for signs of a tsunami threat:
– a rapid departure of water from the coast (the noise of the surf stops);
– a rapid decrease in the water level during high tide;
– rising water level at low tide;
– Unusual drift of floating ice or other objects.
When a tsunami approaches, one can consider oneself safe, being on an elevated place at an altitude of 30-40 m above sea level or far from the coast at a distance of 2-3 km, as well as at a height of 5 m relative to the water level For inland lakes.
With the threat of a tsunami, one cannot remain inactive, otherwise one can pay with one’s life. The first (not necessarily the strongest) wave can approach in 15-20 minutes.
69. You are in the zone of action of snowstorms. A message was received about the beginning of a strong storm. What are your actions to save your own life in a similar situation?
Limit all movement, especially in mountainous and rural areas, and prepare in advance for bad weather: stock up on food and water.
Seal living quarters – this will help to keep warm and reduce fuel consumption.
During a snowstorm, avoid going outside, do not let the children out.
For transitions to other buildings and premises, use the ropes stretched to them so as not to go astray and not to freeze.
Hearing a nearby cry for help, tie a long rope to your belt (attach the other end to the door) and move in circles, gradually unwinding the rope, until a lost person is found.
If a blizzard caught in a car, give sound and light signals, hang a piece of bright fabric on a pole (antenna).
Do not leave the vehicle unless you are sure that help may be nearby. Try not to fall asleep when the engine is on – you can get poisoned by exhaust gases penetrating the cabin; turn the car towards the wind.
Pay attention to warning signs installed in places of possible snowfalls. Bypass these places, observing silence and caution, do not move along the slopes of mountains, the steepness of which is more than 30 degrees; if necessary, cross them early in the morning and at high altitude.
Always have a pocket siren or a transistor radio with you (it is useful to have a whistle to call rescuers).
When hit by a collapse, try to hide under a rock, behind the trunk of a large tree, lie down on the ground face down and clasp your head with your hands (to protect yourself from impacts of stones and pieces of ice), breathe through your clothes.
Remember: power lines damaged by a snowstorm are a mortal danger!
70. The ship you were traveling on began to sink. What are your actions to save your own life in a similar situation?
Do not panic, try to clearly and quickly follow all the instructions of the captain and his assistants.
Put on life jackets for yourself and your loved ones, removing tight clothes and shoes.
Take documents with you, wrap them in a plastic bag and put them under your underwear.
Quickly, but without haste, climb onto the deck and, at the command of the captain, sit down one by one in the boats (on rafts), letting children and women go ahead.
If it is impossible to get into the boats, take with you any floating object (circle, board, etc.) and, after looking around, jump into the water with your feet down.
Once in the water, swim away from the side of the ship by 200-300 m so that you are not dragged under water or under the bottom of the ship, helping people nearby to hold on to your watercraft. Try to get together as a group to help each other and organize joint rescue activities.
Seeing a boat in which there are free places, swim up to it from the stern, do not lean on board. If there are no places, ask to throw a cable (halyard, rope) for you, tie it around your belt and sail to the shore in tow after the boat. Save your energy and do self-massage of your hands and feet more often to restore blood circulation.
Being in a boat in the heat, do not drink sea water, put a wet handkerchief on your head, wipe your body with it. Use the gear available in each lifeboat to get food, catch fish, squeeze juice out of it and drink it.
Never lose hope of salvation and fight for your life with all possible means. Having got ashore on your own or being picked up by a passing ship, immediately report your data, the name of the ship, the time and place of the disaster, the number of people who escaped with you.
71. There was a gas explosion in your house. What are your actions to save your own life in a similar situation?
Immediately call the emergency gas service, fire brigade, police and ambulance.
If there is no threat to life, save people from under the rubble of walls and ceilings, use improvised
means (crowbars, hooks, shovels, car jack, etc.) to extinguish a fire.
If the explosion occurred in a neighboring apartment, then immediately shut off the gas supply, turn off the electricity and leave the apartment, closing the door behind you.
Gas explosions may occur again, so expect the fire brigade to arrive outside at a safe distance.
Provide first aid to the injured.
72. During a trip to the forest for mushrooms or berries, you fell behind your comrades and got lost. What are your actions to maintain personal safety in a similar situation?
Stop and calm down, try to remember the last sign on a familiar part of the path.
Try to establish the direction of movement, remembering which side the sun was on.
Determine the sides of the horizon by the compass, and if it is not there, then by the sun and the clock, by the trees. Remember which direction you went when you entered the forest. After analyzing all this, make a decision what to do: stay in place and wait for help or go out of the forest yourself to the linear landmark that you remembered when entering the forest.
To determine the sides of the horizon by trees, you must keep in mind:
– the bark of most trees is rougher on the north side;
– a pine trunk is usually covered with a secondary crust on the north side;
– birch bark is always cleaner on the south side, and various kinds of cracks, bumps and scabs cover the birch on the north side;
– after the rain, the trunk of a pine tree is black from the north;
– on the north side, trees (stones) are covered with lichens and fungi earlier and more abundantly;
– clearings in large forests, as a rule, are cut along the lines north – south and east – west.
Remember: a forest or country road will lead to housing! If you meet a fork in the road or path, you must go along the one that is more trodden.
73. Your plane crashed during a crash or landing. What are your actions to save your own life in a similar situation?
Lean forward in the chair, grab your head with both hands; quickly remove all sharp objects, jewelry, watches.
Follow all the instructions of the commander of the ship and the crew, do not get up from the seat until the aircraft has come to a complete stop, by any means prevent the occurrence of panic in the cabin and the violation of the aircraft’s centering.
After the cessation of the movement of the aircraft, immediately, observing the sequence, leave it using emergency hatches (the rules for using them are shown on them), inflatable ladders. Helping the wounded and children, get as far away from the aircraft as possible and lie down on the ground, covering their heads with their hands so as not to suffer from fragments during a fuel explosion.
Provide first aid to the wounded.
In a deserted area, with the help of other passengers, build sheds from improvised materials for younger children and the wounded.
Find a source of water and send a few people for help.
74. You decided to cross the road in the right place, but saw an approaching car with a blue beacon and a special sound signal. What are your actions to maintain personal safety in a similar situation?
Refrain from crossing, and if the crossing has already begun, stop at the median and let special vehicles pass.
75. You are moving outside the city on the side of a country road. Which side of the road should you walk on?
Outside built-up areas, pedestrians must walk towards the movement of vehicles.
76. You have a need to cross to the opposite side of the street or road, and there is no pedestrian crossing nearby. What are your actions to maintain personal safety in a similar situation?
Traffic regulations require pedestrians to cross the carriageway only at pedestrian crossings,
and in their absence – at intersections along the line of sidewalks or roadsides.
In places where traffic is regulated, the carriageway should be crossed only at the signals of a traffic light or a traffic controller.
77. You need to cross the street at a pedestrian crossing without a traffic light. How will you behave before crossing the road?
Before crossing the road, you must first carefully look to the left, then immediately to the right and again quickly to the left.
Only after these actions can you start crossing the roadway.
78. When crossing the street, you dropped a thing (object). What are your actions to maintain personal safety in a similar situation?
Do not rush to go back to pick up the fallen thing. It is necessary to look at the road very carefully and, having assessed the traffic situation, fulfill the intention.
79. You decide to cross the road, but there is no crossing or intersection in sight. You decide to quickly run across it. Are your actions correct?
It is very dangerous to cross the road in front of nearby traffic.
Sometimes it may seem that the cars are far away and you can have time to cross the roadway. Alas, this is not always possible and sometimes ends tragically. In a zone of increased danger, which is the road, you can not rely on luck.