In the older group of kindergarten, the calendar of nature can be somewhat complicated, since. in children of the sixth year of life, the ability to perceive and comprehend natural phenomena, to reflect what they see in drawings, as well as the simplest schematic images, has increased. Seasonal phenomena of nature, the state of the weather can be presented in the calendar in more detail, using conventional signs. At the same time, the educator should use the calendar not only as a means of fixing the observations of children, but also to develop their ability to “read” the calendar.
Observation, which has increased by the older preschool age, as well as the knowledge accumulated by children about the variability of the weather, makes it possible to use a significant number (up to 6-7) of conditional images of weather phenomena in the calendar. For example, autumn weather events can be represented by the conditional images shown in the figure. By the second half of the year, the children of the older group have some initial knowledge about time (day, week). Therefore, the teacher can add a conditional image of the week to the calendar (a strip with cells according to the number of days of the week) and teach children to independently mark the state of the weather. Such fixed observations allow children to show the variability of the weather, the dynamism of natural phenomena in a relatively short period of time, and also to consolidate ideas about the days of the week.
In the calendar of nature in the older group, as well as in the middle one, the most interesting drawings of children should be placed, reflecting their observations of the weather, the life of plants and animals, and people. The educator should encourage children to make independent observations, express interest in this activity, evaluate it positively, form the need to sketch what they saw, talk about it using their own drawing. Near the calendar of nature it is good to have everything you need for drawing – paper, pencils or paints.
Design calendars of nature in the senior group in different ways. For example, at the beginning of the year, a calendar with little complexity compared to the average group may be used. In it, plot pictures depicting various seasonal phenomena are replaced by conditional images. Added images of new weather conditions.
In the second half of the year, children independently depict the observed weather phenomena with conventional icons and place them in the cell corresponding to the days of the week.
Acquaintance with nature in everyday life
Given that the classes held in the preparatory group for school are mainly aimed at deepening, generalizing and systematizing children’s knowledge about nature, the work of the educator in everyday life is of particular importance. Knowledge acquired by children in the classroom, not included in everyday practical activities, will be easily forgotten without finding application.
Determining the content of observations, work, simple experiments, the educator must clearly understand the purpose of the work being carried out, be able to determine its place in the general system of acquaintance with this or that phenomenon.
In the preparatory school group, the content of working with children in everyday life becomes more diverse and complex. This is due to the increased cognitive abilities of preschoolers. In natural conditions (on a site, in a park, in a forest, in a field, in a vegetable garden, etc.), children are shown a variety of plants and animals, vivid manifestations of their vital activity, they are given knowledge about the specific relationships between living and non-residential.
The educator should conduct targeted walks and excursions, organize systematic observations and experiments, elementary search activities, actively include the practical activities of preschoolers in the knowledge of natural phenomena, and above all the work of growing plants and some animals and caring for them.
Work in a corner of nature
A corner of nature in a group preparatory to school is a place of interesting observations of its inhabitants, the work of children, and preparation for classes to get acquainted with nature. In September, the corner of nature should be updated. Choosing plants and animals for him, the educator determines what content of knowledge, practical skills and abilities will be formed in children. Thus, observations of moisture-loving and drought-resistant plants will contribute to a better assimilation of knowledge about the differentiated needs of plants. Therefore, it is good to place papyrus, primrose, tradescantia, cactus, uzambar violet in a corner of nature.
By involving children in comparing the features of the appearance of plants, you can teach them to determine the degree of need for moisture. So, for example, plants that have adapted to live in arid conditions that do not require abundant watering have a thick skin or wax coating on the leaves, small leaf blades that reduce water consumption (evaporation) accumulate a large amount of moisture in the tissues.
Light-loving and shade-tolerant plants can be learned by the color saturation of the leaf blade, the density of the leaves. In addition, satisfaction of the need for light and air also depends on the purity of the leaves. It is necessary to teach preschoolers to understand that the dust lying on the surface of the leaf makes it difficult for the normal development of the plant, so it must be removed.
The ability to determine the degree of a plant’s need for moisture and light should form the basis for the proper care of indoor plants while on duty in a corner of nature. It is important to teach older preschoolers to differentiate care, taking into account a particular plant, to evaluate their activities as creating conditions for the normal life of a living being.
Rich material for observations and work in the corner of nature is provided by its inhabitants. The teacher, by asking questions for independent observations of children, tasks for caring for animals, helps the children see the autumn changes in the appearance and behavior of animals. This is a decrease in the activity of a turtle, a hedgehog, a decrease in their need for food, falling into hibernation. Together with the educator, children can establish the causes of the observed changes, identify the most important feature of animals – the ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions.
Fulfilling labor assignments, carrying out duty in the corner of nature, older preschoolers create conditions for animals that meet their needs in the autumn period: they prepare dry leaves, hay near the hedgehog cage, take the cage with the hedgehog to hibernation in a cool place; pour a thick layer of sand into the terrarium for the turtle. Children should be taught not to disturb sleeping animals and remember to take care of other non-hibernating pets: feed them, clean the cage, etc.
Having noticed certain individual characteristics of animals, birds (for example, a cheerful disposition, cleanliness, slowness or mobility), the originality of appearance, children can give the animal a nickname, teach it to respond to it. This makes the attitude towards them warmer, kinder, care becomes conscious.