What measures are used in accounting?

Monetary meter is one of the meters in accounting, with the help of which the indicators of accounting objects are obtained in monetary terms.

Meter Natural – one of the meters in accounting, with the help of which the indicators of accounting objects are obtained in physical terms (by weight, measure, account)

Labor meter – in accounting, data on the number of man-days or man-hours worked. The main document for recording working hours is the time sheet.

5 How is control over financially responsible persons ensured?

The scope of accounting is a separate business entity – an enterprise, organization, institution.
Each enterprise has at its disposal various means for carrying out economic operations, which add up to certain economic processes, and these, in turn, constitute the essence of the economic activity of the enterprise. It is the economic activity of the enterprise that is the subject of accounting, and the funds of the enterprise, business processes and the results of the enterprise’s activities are considered as objects of accounting. Thus, business processes are the object of accounting

6 What processes can be identified in the circulation of enterprise funds?

The subject of accounting is the financial and economic activities of enterprises, organizations and institutions. In the course of the enterprise, there is a circulation of economic assets. In this cycle, three processes can be distinguished: supply, production and sale. In accounting, these processes are represented by separate business transactions. The supply process takes into account such business transactions as the receipt of materials from suppliers, payment of transportation costs for their delivery, release of materials into production. In the supply process, payroll, depreciation (wear and tear), etc. are taken into account. In the process of implementation, receipts to the settlement account of proceeds from sales, write-off of production costs, calculation of profit and its allocation to the Profit and Loss account are taken into account.

7. When there is a receivable in the enterprise

Receivables (eng. Accounts receivable (A / R) ) – the amount of debt due to the enterprise, firm, company from other enterprises, firms, companies, as well as citizens who are their debtors, debtors [1] . What corresponds to both international and Russian standards is an accountant. Accounts receivable arises when a service (or product) is sold but no cash is received. As a rule, the buyer does not provide any written confirmation of the debt, with the exception of the signature on the acceptance of the goods on the shipping document. Accounts receivable are current assets of the company, regardless of its maturity.

8. What does the concept of accounts payable mean?

Accounts payable – funds temporarily attracted by an enterprise, institution, organization and subject to return to the relevant individuals or legal entities. Typically, accounts payable are outstanding payments to suppliers for shipped goods, unpaid taxes, unpaid accrued wages, unpaid insurance premiums, unpaid debts. Accounts payable – in the balance sheet – an item of liabilities. Accounts payable are invoices that must be paid in the normal course of business.

9. What is the difference between fixed assets and working capital?

the main difference is that working capital is fully used in production and circulation. fully transfer their value to the product. (materials, goods, etc. etc.)
A fixed asset is something that transfers its value gradually by accruing depreciation. not directly related to production, such as buildings, machines. equipment.. etc. etc. in a word, all this property. just a difference in cost, purpose, participation in the production process ..

10. What sources of economic means are own?

Them. with. divided into own and borrowed. Sources of own funds: authorized capital, profit, special funds, reserves. Sources of borrowed funds: bank loans and credits. The sources of the enterprise’s own funds for financing the reproduction of fixed assets include:

  • depreciation;
  • depreciation of intangible assets;
  • profit remaining at the disposal of the enterprise,
  • budget allocations,
  • issue of shares.

11. What sources of funds are borrowed sources?

The borrowed sources of financing the reproduction of fixed assets include:

  • bank loans;
  • borrowed funds of other enterprises and organizations;
  • share;
  • funding from the budget on a returnable basis;
  • funding from extrabudgetary funds.

12. What is the balance method?

a method that consists in comparing systems of indicators that balance each other (for example, resources and their use, production and consumption, cash income and expenses, assets and liabilities, production and distribution, etc.). The balance method is a tool for measuring proportions in the economy in value and in kind.

13-14. What sections does the asset and liability of the balance sheet consist of?

The balance sheet asset includes two sections: section I “Non-current assets” and section II “Current assets”. There are three sections in the liabilities side of the balance: section III “Capital and reserves”, section IV “Long-term liabilities” and section V “Short-term liabilities”. Sections in the asset balance are arranged in ascending order of liquidity, and in liabilities – according to the degree of consolidation of sources.

15. What is called the balance sheet?

– the sum (total) for all the constituent accounts of the balance sheet. This amount should be the same for the asset and liability side of the balance sheet.

16. What is reflected in active accounts?

Active accounts for recording settlements reflect the formation and movement of receivables, an example is account 71 “Settlements with accountable persons”.
Passive settlement accounts are used to account for the formation and movement of accounts payable. Passive accounts for recording settlements include accounts: 60 “Settlements with suppliers and contractors”, 68 “Settlements on taxes and fees”, 66 “Settlements on short-term loans and borrowings”, 67 “Settlements on long-term loans and loans”, etc.

The asset reflects the final debit balances on the accounting accounts, i.e. information about the company’s funds in terms of their composition and placement. Active-passive accounts are accounts that reflect both the property of the organization (as on active accounts) and the sources of its formation (as on passive accounts).

There are two types of active-passive accounts:

  • with a unilateral balance (debit or credit)
  • with a bilateral balance (debit and credit at the same time).

The one-way balance account is the Profit and Loss account. If the company’s income exceeds the amount of expenses, then the difference between them makes a profit, so the account balance will be credit (since the credit turnover will be greater than the debit one). Profit is a source of property formation and is reflected in the liabilities side of the balance sheet. If there are losses, then the account balance will be debit (since the debit turnover exceeds the credit turnover).

Active-passive accounts with a bilateral detailed balance include the account “Settlements with debtors and creditors”. The debit balance of this account means receivables, and the credit balance means accounts payable. The debit entries of this account may have the following meaning: either an increase in accounts receivable or a decrease in accounts payable; credit entries of this account can have the following meaning: either an increase in accounts payable, or a decrease in receivables.

17. What is reflected in passive accounts?

In liabilities, the final credit balances on the accounts, i.e. information about the sources of formation of economic assets, the state of capital and liabilities ..

18. What is the balance sheet?

A method of grouping and reflecting in monetary terms the state of the organization’s funds by types and sources of their formation on a certain date (on the 1st day of the reporting period).

19. What accounting registers are used in accounting?

The information contained in the primary documents accepted for accounting is recorded, systematized and accumulated for further reflection on the accounting accounts and in the financial statements in tables of a special form, which are called accounting registers or accounting registers. Accounting registers are maintained in special books (journals), on separate sheets and cards, in the form of machine diagrams, when using computer technology, as well as on computer media (disks, floppy disks, etc.).

20. What principle underlies the journal-order system?

The journal-order form of accounting is based on the principles of accumulating and systematizing the data of primary documents in accounting registers, which make it possible to provide synthetic and analytical accounting of funds, sources and business transactions in all sections of accounting. This eliminates the need for compiling memorial warrants. Chronological and systematic records of business transactions are carried out simultaneously as a single workflow. The journal of chronological registration of economic turnover is not kept.

21.What does it mean to open an account?

To open an account means to give it a name and write down on the corresponding side the initial state of the object being taken into account (the initial balance from the balance, if any), which is called the initial balance.

22. What is the subject of accounting?

The subject of accounting is the property of the organization, which is in the form of economic assets and liabilities, the movement of this property through business operations occurring in the areas of supply, production and sales of products, as well as the results of the organization’s activities. Organizations are the scope of accounting and at the same time are the objects of its accounting.

23. What groups are accounting objects divided into?

objects (property of the enterprise, its obligations and business operations carried out in the course of financial and economic activity) can be combined into two groups:

– objects that ensure the economic activity of the enterprise;

– objects that make up the economic activity of the enterprise.

Group 1 includes economic means and their sources .

Group 2 includes business processes and their results .

The property of the enterprise is divided into 3 interrelated sections:
– the property of the enterprise in terms of composition and location;

– property by sources of its formation (capital, liabilities);

– business operations and results occurring in the areas of supply, production and sales.

24. What sections does the chart of accounts consist of?

The chart of accounts consists of 8 sections: 1. non-current assets, 2. production, 3. production costs, 4. finished products and goods, 5. cash, 6. calculations, 7. capital, 8. financial results. Off-balance accounts.

25. What is the purpose of a used Chart of Accounts?

The Chart of Accounts is designed to display in monetary terms information about accounting objects (assets and liabilities of the enterprise). One of the most important purposes of accounts is the systematization and grouping of information about business transactions according to economically homogeneous characteristics. For example, to account for cash at the cash desk of an enterprise, account 50 “Cashier” is intended, for accounting for non-cash money on a current account with a bank – account 51 “Settlement account”, for accounting for fixed assets – account 01 “Fixed assets”, for accounting for raw materials and materials – account 10 “Materials”, etc.

26. What kind of accounts are calculation accounts?

Calculation accounts are designed to reflect production costs, which are included in the cost of products, works, services, as well as costs associated with the acquisition of non-current assets – fixed assets and intangible assets.

The following active accounts are included in the calculation:

20 “Main production”;
23 “Auxiliary production”;
29 “Service industries”;
08 “Investments in non-current assets”.

28. What is the essence of the memorial-order form of accounting?

The essence of the memorial-order form of accounting is that on the basis of documents grouped in accumulative statements, memorial orders are compiled, which indicate the correspondence of accounts. All documents on the basis of which it is drawn up are attached to the memorial order.

To reduce accounting work, it is advisable to use accumulative statements. If the number of homogeneous documents is insignificant, compiling a grouping or cumulative statement is not advisable. In this case, a memorial order is drawn up for each individual document.

29. What are the features of an analytical account?

The main features of analytical accounts are:

1. The balance at the beginning of all analytical accounts is equal to the balance at the beginning of the synthetic account to which they are open.
2. The sum of the turnovers on the debit of all analytical accounts is equal to the turnover on the debit of the synthetic account, respectively, and the credit of the accounts.
3. The balance at the end of all analytical accounts is equal to the balance at the beginning of the synthetic account to which they are open.

30.when a synthetic account is used

Synthetic accounts contain generalized indicators about the property, liabilities and operations of the organization for economically homogeneous groups, expressed in monetary terms. Synthetic accounts include: 01 “Fixed assets”; 10 “Materials”; 50 “Cashier”; 51 “Settlement accounts”; 43 “Finished products”; 41 “Goods”; 70 “Settlements with personnel for wages”; 80 “Authorized capital”, etc.

31. What is a chronological accounting register?

An accounting register is a special form designed for accounts.

A chronological record is a record in the chronological sequence of transactions. Chronological register – an accounting register for records of business transactions as they are completed and documents are received by the accounting department: a registration journal, a book of business records , etc. Accounting registers are called chronological , in which operations are recorded in the calendar sequence of their completion.

32. What is the feature of a systematic accounting register?

A systematic entry is an entry in a system of accounting accounts.

Systematic registers are designed to group homogeneous operations and record them according to a certain system in accounting accounts, i.e. systematized. The grouping is carried out both according to analytical and synthetic accounts. The indicators of systematic registers characterize the state and movement of individual accounting objects (the statement of accounting for production costs by calculation objects, the General Ledger, which summarizes the totals for all synthetic accounts).

33. What is the inventory of material assets?

When inventorying material assets accepted (handed over) for safekeeping, the Inventory list of material assets accepted (handed over) for safekeeping (Appendix 11) is applied.

When inventorying material assets accepted for safekeeping, entries in the inventory are made by the inventory commission on the basis of verification and recalculation of valuables in kind.

Goods and materials stored in the warehouses of other institutions (organizations) are recorded in the inventory on the basis of supporting documents on the transfer to safekeeping.

34. What does the term “document” mean?

A document is a certificate of a business transaction executed in accordance with the statutory procedure. No documents – no record. The registration procedure is determined by the “Regulations on Documents and Documentary Circulation in Accounting”. Primary documents may contain both mandatory and additional details, depending on the nature of the operation being performed.

35. What details should the document have?

A document attribute is an obligatory element of a certain type of document. Each document must have the following basic details: purpose (except for a business letter), author, content, date, signature or approval, etc.

36. Who are the users of accounting information?

Managers, shareholders and potential investors, employees, creditors and government organizations.

An analysis of the activities and needs of various users of accounting information shows that they can be legitimately divided into two main categories:

  • internal users , i.e. users within the enterprise where accounting is carried out (insiders). The only category of these users are decision makers in the management of the company – managers of various levels of management;
  • external users , i.e. users who are not part of the enterprise (outsiders) – external investors (shareholders) who are not directly involved in management, creditors (banks, lenders, bondholders, etc.), suppliers, buyers and other business partners, government agencies (tax services, commissions on securities and exchanges, statistical bodies, etc.), employees of the enterprise as hired labor in the person of their representatives (trade unions), public, charitable organizations and society as a whole.

37. In what cases is an inventory taken?

An inventory is required:

– when transferring property for rent, redemption, sale, as well as when transforming a state or municipal unitary enterprise;

– before the preparation of annual financial statements;

– when changing financially responsible persons;

– when revealing facts of theft, abuse or damage to property;

– in case of natural disaster, fire or other emergencies caused by extreme conditions;

– in case of reorganization or liquidation of the organization;

– in other cases stipulated by the legislation of the Russian Federation.

In case of collective (team) financial responsibility, inventories are carried out when the head of the team (team leader) changes, when more than fifty percent of its members leave the team (team), and also at the request of one or more members of the team (team).

40. What is the peculiarity of off-balance accounts?

Off-balance accounts are designed to account for inventory items that are temporarily in use or at the disposal of the enterprise, but do not belong to it. In addition, the same accounts record contingent rights and obligations. These accounts are also used to control individual business transactions.

A feature of off-balance accounts is that a simple accounting system is used to account for funds, i.e., double entry is not used to keep records on these accounts. When funds are received, their value is reflected only in the debit of an off-balance account, and when funds are withdrawn, their amount is debited from the credit of the same account.

41. What is the relationship between synthetic and analytical accounts?

Synthetic and analytical accounting are organized so that their indicators control each other and eventually coincide. Therefore, they are recorded in parallel. Entries on the accounts of analytical accounting are made on the basis of the same documents as entries on the accounts of synthetic accounting, but with greater detail.

There is an inextricable relationship between synthetic and analytical accounts. It is expressed in the following equalities.

1. The opening balance for all analytical accounts opened for this synthetic account is equal to the opening balance of the synthetic account (åС = С ).

2. The turnover on all analytical accounts opened on this synthetic account must be equal to the turnover of the synthetic account

3. The ending balance for all analytical accounts opened for this synthetic account is equal to the ending balance of the synthetic account (åС = С ).

42. What are the requirements for accounting?

The accounting requirements are as follows:

  • Comparability of planned (forecast) and accounting indicators is necessary, first of all, to control the implementation of plans, forecasts and orders, for example, in terms of labor productivity, material consumption, production costs.
  • The credibility of accounting data is ensured by documenting all business transactions, the correct implementation of inventory, monetary valuation, accounting for current costs, and calculation.
  • Efficiency of accounting consists in the timely submission of credentials for production management and reporting.
  • The completeness and simplicity of accounting consists in the presentation of all accounting information necessary for production and business management, as well as for external users, while avoiding redundant information, eliminating duplication and unnecessary indicators. Accounting information should be as accessible as possible for managers and specialists of the organization and its divisions, founders, participants and owners of the organization’s property.
  • The cost-effectiveness of accounting is characterized by indicators: the number of employees of an enterprise (organization) per one accounting employee, the level of technical equipment of accounting employees, determined by the ratio of the cost of technical means for accounting to the number of employees, and other indicators.

43. What are the characteristic features of accounting?

Accounting has a number of characteristic features that distinguish it from other types of accounting (in particular, management, tax or statistical):

  • the subject of accounting is limited to the framework of a particular organization;
  • in the accounting system there is a continuous reflection of all, without exception, business transactions that are carried out in the organization;
  • continuity in time of reflection of occurring economic facts;
  • each economic fact is documented using a primary document or a machine-based information carrier, which has a legal basis and according to which responsibility for the business operation being performed is established, and therefore the document acquires legal force;
  • all means and economic processes are necessarily reflected in monetary terms, generalizing natural indicators;
  • the interconnectedness of the reflection of economic activity, due to the mutual dependence of the facts taking place;
  • the use of their specific methods (techniques) of data processing that are not used in other types of accounting or are rarely used (for example, accounts, double entry, costing, balance sheet).

46. For what purposes is a turnover sheet of synthetic accounting compiled?

The turnover sheet for synthetic accounting accounts is the total of turnovers and balances for all synthetic accounts. It is designed to verify the correctness of the accounts of general familiarization with the state of the economic financial activities of organizations and to draw up a new balance sheet.

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