SOCIAL – PEDAGOGICAL FACULTY
Department of Social Pedagogy
“Theory and Methods of Leisure Organization”
On the topic:
“The value of folk toys in the organization of children’s leisure”
1st year student
Murkina I. S.
candidate ped. Sciences, Assoc. Zemsh M.B.
Orekhovo-Zuevo – 2016
1. What is a toy? Toy history. 4
2. Basic psychological and pedagogical requirements for a toy. 7
List of used literature. nine
Of the many things that surround a child, the most important thing for him is a toy. It is in it that impressions of the world are reflected, which have a great influence on the future life of the child, his character.
A toy is one of the important means of education and training. It should develop cognitive abilities, imagination; help to get used to the world of adults; to form in the child a love for work, curiosity, observation, to educate the artistic taste of the child, to encourage him to be creative.
A toy has many sides – pedagogical, aesthetic, moral, industrial, economic, cultural, social, psychological, etc. All these are different sides of such seemingly simple objects, but are they so simple? In many ways, everything that concerns childhood, we, adults, often have a frivolous attitude. Adults, perhaps, do not even think about what toys they buy, what they give to children, what toys they bring to kindergarten.
For a child, a toy is an integral part of his life and therefore requires the most serious attention!
What is a toy? toy story
Toys are specially made items intended for games, providing play activities for children and adults. The main feature of the toy is that it presents in a generalized form the typical features and properties of the object.
A toy, in the figurative expression of A. S. Makarenko, is the “material basis” of a game, it is necessary for the development of gaming activity. K. D. Ushinsky was one of the first to draw attention to the fact that a toy is a kind of school for educating a child’s feelings. A new toy does not immediately win the heart of a child. It all depends on those games, life situations in which the baby will include her as a partner. Favorite toys teach the child kindness, empathy .
The meaning of a folk toy is to develop, occupy, amuse, please a child. The first toys were hung over the unsteady. These were bells, noisy pendants, colorful patches, rattles.
In the early stages of the primitive communal system, there were no toys. This was associated with primitive means and forms of labor that allowed children to take part in the simple work of adults: collect plants and roots suitable for food, fish, hunt small animals and birds, and farm. With the transition to higher forms of production, the division of labor, the nature of children’s participation in its various types also changed. The task was to teach children how to use complex tools as early as possible in order to involve them in more important activities. For this, a reduced copy of the tool was created. With their help, children practiced in conditions close to real life. But reduced copies could not perform their intended functions in full. It was during this period that toys began to appear.
The toy only outwardly reflected household items. The toy has changed over the millennia. The change primarily concerned production: from handicraft to industrial. The development of science and technology affects the technology of creating toys. More complex tools, equipment, paints and materials appeared. Under the influence of the dominant ideology, the content of the images changed (at the beginning of the century – dolls of mistresses, servants, monks, angels, policemen, kings; later – boys – kibalchish, dolls – Red Army soldiers, pioneers). Under the influence of the social policy of society and scientific and technological progress, the assortment of toys and their quality are changing. This is evidenced by the appearance in our time of computer toys, space-themed toys, Barbie dolls. Over the centuries, the functions of toys have changed (once to scare away evil spirits, as protectors of the clan, a symbol of prosperity and productivity) .
XVI-XVII centuries During this period, folk wooden and pottery toys were developed.
The industrial production of toys began in the German city of Nuremberg in the 19th century. Here, in 1880, they began to use stamping in the manufacture of toys, which made it possible to produce mass cheap products.
Since the time of F. Fröbel, much attention has been paid to building materials for children’s games. There were a lot of them – various sizes, designs. In 1901, the first metal constructor was created in Great Britain.
In general, anything can become a toy. The property of being a toy is not rigidly tied to the outwardly material features of this or that object. His entry into the class of “toys” is due to the attitude of the playing person towards him. It is the person who turns the object into a true toy in the process of playing with it.
The role of a true toy can be given to any item if it:
– attractive – causes a desire to communicate with the object, look at it, manipulate it;
– available for mastering – determined by the ability of the player to build this object into his living space;
– is not perceived at the moment as a “serious thing” – that is, it is not subject to the generally accepted rules for handling “serious” objects.
– Satisfies the age needs of the development of the child;
– Able to become a symbolic object for personal projections – when it is possible to transfer one’s experiences, feelings, thoughts and actions to one’s toy both consciously and subconsciously .
The word “toy” – for many is synonymous with trinkets, fun. While this is a special subject with great power, with the ability to teach. And the future of our children depends on how we treat the choice of toys for our child, whether we know how to properly organize the game, direct his actions, unfold the plot.