What is the name of the natural area of the distribution of life on Earth (the upper part of the earth’s crust), the lower layer of the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and the upper layer of the lithosphere, which have not experienced technogenic impact? -Biosphere
9. What is the name of the set of artificial objects within the geographic envelope of the Earth and near-Earth outer space, created by man from the substance of the inanimate and partially living nature surrounding him. – Technosphere
10. What is the name of the environment characterized by a combination of social factors inherent in a given stage of development of society in its interaction with nature. – Sociosphere
11. How is the technosphere formed? -Technosphere – a habitat created by the impact of people and technical means on the natural environment in order to best match the environment with social and economic needs.
12. The technosphere, after being created by man, can – after being created, can only degrade.
13. What are the factors called – components and phenomena of inanimate, inorganic nature, directly or indirectly affecting living organisms. – Abiotic factors
14. What is the name of the totality of the influences of the vital activity of some organisms on the vital activity of others (intraspecific and interspecific interactions), as well as on the inanimate habitat? – Biotic factors
15. What are the factors of the activity of human society that change nature as the habitat of living organisms or directly affect their life? – Anthropogenic (anthropic) factors
16. What are the types of anthropogenic damaging factors? – Physical, Chemical, Biological, Social
17. What types of conditions exist for a person in the “man – environment” system? -Comfortable (optimal), Permissible, Dangerous, Extremely dangerous.
18. What is the name of the conditions of activity and rest, to which a person is adapted to a greater extent, and in which the highest efficiency is manifested, the preservation of health and the integrity of the components of the environment are guaranteed? -Comfortable (optimal)
What is the name of the conditions characterized by the deviation of the levels of flows of substances, energy and information from the nominal values within the limits acceptable for a person, under which working conditions do not have a negative impact on health, but, however, lead to discomfort, reduced efficiency and productivity? -Permissible
20. What are the names of the conditions that have a negative impact on human health, and which, with prolonged exposure, cause diseases and lead to degradation of the natural environment? – Dangerous
21. What are the conditions that in a short time can cause injury or death, cause irreversible destruction in the natural environment? – extremely dangerous
22. What is the name of the factor whose impact on a person leads to injury or a sharp deterioration in health? – Dangerous
23. What are the names of adverse factors of the labor process or environmental conditions that can have a harmful effect on human health and performance? – Harmful (damaging)
24. How can human interaction with the environment be assessed? – positive, negative
25. How can human security be ensured? – elimination of sources of danger, increasing protection from dangers or the ability to reliably resist them.
26. What is the name of the negative property of living and inanimate matter, capable of causing damage to matter itself, people, the natural environment, material values? – Danger
27. What is the name of the phenomenon, process, object, properties of objects that, under certain conditions, can cause damage to human health, i.e. danger at the stage of transition from possibility to reality? – Threat
28. What are the dangers (damaging factors) by the nature of the impact on a person? – mechanical, physical, chemical, biological, psychophysiological
29. How are hazards divided according to the time of manifestation of negative consequences? – impulsive and cumulative
30. How are the hazards associated with a person divided according to the caused consequences? – fatigue, illness, injuries, accidents, fires, deaths, etc.
31. How are hazards divided according to the damage caused to the human environment? – social, technical, ecological, economic.
32. What is the name of the frequency of realization of hazards, expressed in relation to the number of certain adverse consequences to their possible number for a certain period? – risk
33. What is the name of the danger of a certain type for an individual (person)? – Individual risk
34. What is the name of the process of a probable decrease in the quality of life of people as a result of the negative consequences of emergency situations, or various kinds of phenomena and transformations in the state? – Social risk
35. What is the name of the risk that is justified by society based on political, social and economic considerations? – Acceptable risk
36. What is the name of the process of analyzing a risk situation, the development and justification of a management decision, often in the form of a legal act aimed at minimizing the risk? – Risk management
37. What is the name of the process of regulation, change and adaptation of the parameters of the internal environment of a person to environmental conditions? – Adaptation
38. What is the central legal document of the security system in the Russian Federation? – The Constitution of the Russian Federation
39. What is the name of the property of an organism to respond with a change in vital activity to various environmental influences? – Reactivity
40. What system is organized and aimed at protecting against danger, and thanks to which the continuous struggle for existence is carried out? –
41. What cells are responsible for the perception, processing, storage and transmission of information – solve vital issues? – nerve cells (neurons)
42. What is the name of the response of the body with the participation of the central nervous system? – Reflex
43. What are the names of the reflex reactions of the body, carried out in the subcortical nuclei, brain stem, spinal cord, which are inherited, are relatively constant and are specific? – Unconditional
44. What are the names of the reflex processes of the body acquired by it in the process of individual development on the basis of life experience, which are a function of the cerebral cortex, which are individual and may or may not be present in different people? – Conditional
45. Can conditioned reflexes in a person, depending on the conditions of life and age, be developed, consolidated or disappear? – Yes (can)
46. What should be included in the training of BJD in critical situations to ensure human security? – deep knowledge of the causes and analysis of the consequences of these situations;
analysis of critical situations with an analysis of the wrong behavior of people and the consequences to which this behavior leads; to develop skills and master skills, it is necessary to conduct training using various types of simulators, stands, models; in order to consolidate the acquired skills (conditioned reflexes), improve professional skills, it is necessary to conduct training in the form of “modeling” critical situations and assessing people’s behavior.
47. What are the names of the formations of the peripheral and central nervous system, which carry out the perception and analysis of information about a phenomenon that occurs both in the environment and inside the body itself? – Analyzers
48. What is the name of the minimum difference in intensity between stimuli, which provides a different reaction of the body? – difference (sensitivity) threshold.
49. What levels does the absolute limit of sensitivity have? – top and bottom
50. What is the name of the minimum amount of irritation that causes sensitivity? – Lower absolute limit of sensitivity
51. What is the name of the maximum allowable amount of irritation that causes pain in a person? – Upper absolute limit of sensitivity
52. What is the main part of the analyzer? – Receptor
53. How are receptors divided in the human body? – external (exteroreceptors) and internal (interoreceptors)
54. How many analyzers, taking into account the anatomical and physiological unity and commonality of functions, are distinguished in modern physiology? – 8
55. What are the main characteristics of the visual analyzer you need to know to ensure life safety, including labor, greater productivity and lower energy costs? –
1. The nearest point of clear reference is 10 cm from the eye. Objects closer than 10 cm cannot be clearly seen by a person with normal vision.
2. The inertia of vision is due to the time of action of physiological processes and ranges from 0.03 to 0.1 s.
3. The minimum duration of gaze fixation on the object in question or a luminous point, lamp, control panel is within 0.2-0.5 s.
4. Dark adaptation occurs unevenly: in the first 10 seconds, the sensitivity of the eye increases 50-80 times, and then within 10 minutes – many tens of thousands of times. This circumstance must be taken into account when people leave or leave bright rooms (areas) for dark streets (areas), or vice versa.
5. Visible spectrum range from 720-400nm from red to violet. Partial color blindness is observed, as a rule, in men. 8% are color blind, most often they do not distinguish between red and green colors.
56. How is the sensitivity threshold of sound pressure at a given frequency, which causes an auditory sensation, interpreted? – minimum sensitivity threshold=1dB
57. What is the name in the psychological characteristics of a person of an acute violation of the adequacy of a reaction, a deterioration in the functional quality of his nervous activity, a decrease in the level of mental health? – stress
58. What are the goals of the doctrine of life safety? – protection of a person in the technosphere from the negative effects of damaging factors of anthropogenic and natural origin, the achievement of comfortable living conditions.
59. How can you interpret the term – security? – the state of the object of protection, in which the impact on it of all the damaging factors – the flows of matter, energy and information – does not exceed the maximum allowable values.
60. How is the concept interpreted when the state of the source of danger is such that when it is exposed, its permissible parameters on the technosphere or biosphere are observed? – Environmental friendliness of the safety source
What do the methods of realization of scientific goals and tasks of life safety include? –
– identification and description of the impact zones of the hazards of the technosphere and its individual elements (enterprises, machines, devices, etc.);
– development, creation and implementation in practice of the most effective systems and methods of protection against hazards;
– formation of systems for monitoring hazards and managing the state of safety of the technosphere;
– development and implementation of measures to eliminate the consequences of the manifestation of hazards;
62. What is the name of the term that refers to the frequency of the hazard, or the ratio of the number of deaths (for example, at work) per year to the total number of employees, or the number of deaths per year from the total number of inhabitants in a given country, or the ratio of the number of events with undesirable consequences to the total number of events for a certain period of time. – risk
63. In scientific terms, what are the ways to determine the risk to create comfortable conditions? – Engineering, Modeling, Expert, Sociological
64. How many well-defined classes are included in the classification of hazard sources based on the typology of hazard sources (that is, what society needs to protect against)? – 5
65. How are the sources of danger divided according to various parameters (time, place, harm, etc.)? –
– By the time of appearance (impulsive and cumulative);
– By localization (atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, space);
– According to the consequences (injury, death, fire, illness, etc.);
– According to the harm received (social, technical);
– By the sphere of manifestation (environmental, household, sports, road transport, industrial);
– By structure (simple, complex, derivative);
– By the nature of the action on a person (active, passive).