Algorithm for writing an essay-reasoning (part C)
In preparation for the exam
We begin the analysis of the text with the identification of the topic (what the text is about).
To do this, select keywords (words related to the same topic, synonymous words and expressions).
… is the topic addressed by the author of the text.
This text (article) about …
The author refers to the current topic – the topic …
This text is about…
The author dedicates the article …
Having identified the topic, you can try to formulate the problem.
Problem – (from Greek) – task – a question requiring study, resolution.
The problem of what, a point of view on a problem, put, put forward, consider, discuss, state, solve a problem, touch on a problem, pay attention to a problem, a problem arises, arises, is of interest , Deserves attention.
The problem is formulated as a question, or by combining the word “problem” with a noun in the genitive case.
There may be several problems. It is important to see two and comment. It is important to comment not on the entire text, but on the one (those) problems that you stated at the beginning.
Which question to choose? It is important to choose the issue on which the author thinks the most and on which the author’s position is clearly stated.
Reread how you identified the problem. If in the form of a question, then the position should sound like an answer to a question. If according to the formula “problem + noun in the genitive case”, then this noun should sound in the designation of the author’s position.
Templates : The author of the problem can be:
Possible problems :
The problem of remembering one’s origins, one’s childhood (why, having matured, does a person feel a connection with the home of his childhood, with the world of his childhood?);
The problem of the role of childhood in a person’s life (why is childhood the most important stage in a person’s life?);
The problem of historical memory (why should a person keep the memory of the past? What does it mean to love one’s family and one’s Motherland7);
The problem of the father’s house (why one should not forget the father’s house7);
The problem of evaluating such a period of a person’s life as childhood (is childhood really the “golden” period of a person’s life? What is the role of childhood in the formation of a personality?);
The problem of the moral strength of a person (why is it in ordinary everyday situations that the moral essence of a person often manifests itself?);
The problem of the development and preservation of the Russian language (is the Russian language enriched or spoiled due to borrowings?);
The problem of human influence on nature (what is the degree of human influence on nature and what are the possible consequences of this influence);
The problem of human perception of nature as living matter (should a person perceive nature as something living, take care of it?);
The problem of the injustice of the social structure of society (is it natural to divide people into rich and poor, is society organized correctly?);
The problem of the alienation of the world of the rich and well-fed from the world of the poor and hungry (do the well-fed and rich think about those who cannot afford to eat their fill?);
The problem of internal resistance to the temptation of abundance (can children from a poor family resist the temptation of abundance and not become embittered?);
The problem of choosing a profession taking into account personal and public interests (can personal and public interests coincide when choosing a profession?)
The problem of a person’s responsibility to himself and society (can a person be free from society, from other people?);
The problem of the commercialization of culture.
We comment on the problem.
A commentary differs from a simple retelling in that in the retelling you say what the characters are doing, and in the commentary what the author is doing. This is the most important and difficult.
It is important to reflect on some questions related to the read text; to whom is the text addressed? What is the relevance of the text? How does the author approach this problem? What category does the problem belong to: moral, ethical, social, environmental, socio-political, philosophical, psychological? How covered is this issue in the literature? Which of the authors touched it? How did the author approach his task? How does the author describe the situation, what does he focus on?
Here it is possible to turn to means of expression if they help to determine the author’s position. What is the writer’s point of view? Maybe the author shows it through the eyes of the narrator, speaks on behalf of the hero? What mood is the author in? What emphasizes? What follows from this? What conclusions does it lead us to?
Patterns : The problem may be:
- moral and ethical philosophical;
The significance of the problem can be emphasized with the help of words :
The problem may cause the reader to :
discuss with the author
better understand yourself and others
to better understand the tragedy of what is happening to think seriously
more critical of…
take a different look at…
share your thoughts on…
Why is it important to be able to comment on the main problem of the text?
This allows you to see what the author is interested in.
By commenting on the problem, you also show your perception of what the author cares about.
The comment will allow you to take a deeper look at the problem posed.
The comment should not include:
Retelling of the original text or part of it.
Reasoning about all the problems of the text.
Comments on the actions of the heroes of the text.
Avoid repeating the word “problem”
Do not allow the expressions “the problem is that …”, “the problem is that ..”, “the problem of courage and perseverance ..”.
We determine the author’s position (the idea of the text).
At the same time, it is necessary to say how the author solves the stated problem, how he argues his position (“for”), what, in the end, is the purpose of writing the text. If the problem of the text is a question, then the author’s position is the answer to the question, how the author answers it. When formulating a problem as a question, you need to know how the author answers it. You are not required to formulate the position of the author in general, but to show his opinion on the problem highlighted and commented on by you.
The author’s position in a journalistic style is likely to be indicated directly, and it can be easily detected. It is better not to quote the entire sentence, which reflects the author’s position, but to quote partially or retell (so as not to lower the score).
If the text is artistic, then the author’s position may not be directly stated. Here it is important to pay attention to how it is stated: directly or indirectly; use of means of expression; conscription; appraisal; availability; simplicity, etc.
|The author may|
|Dedicate your article Solve the stated problem Emotionally affect the reader Make the reader your ally Figuratively recreate the picture of what is happening Highlight key problems (thoughts, words, motives) Figuratively represent the essence of the problem that worries him Strengthen a positive or negative attitude towards something Convey the depth of problems (feelings , ideas, reflections, generalizations, reflections) Reveal the essence of the problems posed Accurately formulate (express) the thought Make the reader think about the problem (topic, idea) Show the relevance of the problem (topic) he is considering Form a positive or negative attitude to the problem raised Try to find the reasons for the negative ( positive) phenomena Emphasize the severity of the problem posed See the depth and relevance of the problem Turn to the traditions of Russian life, literature …. Express the opinion of the majority Try to understand why Use a series of persuasive arguments Encourage the search for truth Try to explain why Bring up in the article the issue that seems to be the most relevant Force a reassessment of the relationship ..||Ask a series of moral questions that require immediate answers Help us see a traditional topic in a new way Claim that… Clarify some points Write interesting and new about old problems Set a goal for us to find solutions to difficult life issues Give as an example a quote Being a strict judge of negative phenomena life Intend to find answers to difficult life questions Make us solve difficult life issues ourselves (make a moral choice) Invite us to talk about the difficult problems of our life Prove convincingly using specific examples Give new life to an old topic Form a positive or negative reader attitude to the issues raised Emphasize the truth state of affairs Ironically (sarcastically, indignantly, admiringly, etc.) to narrate about events and heroes in relation to … Call us to … Present a true picture of what is happening|
The author seeks to achieve the goals:
Share with you my thoughts, convey to you my interest in this topic, problem
affect you emotionally
Find a soul mate in you
The author believes that … The author claims that …
The author is convinced that …, and such confidence has its reasons.
It is important for the author to convince the reader that…
The author’s opinion is undeniable that …
The author leads the reader to the idea that …
The author strives to convey to the reader the idea that …
Solving the problem, the author comes to the conclusion: …
… – in these words, in my opinion, the main problem of the text is reflected.
… – this statement accurately reflects the author’s thought.
The position of the author is clear: …