Activities carried out in advance in order to prevent terrorist acts in the mode of daily activities
The development and adoption of legal and normative-technical documents in the field of protection of the population and territories in emergency situations caused by terrorist acts of various nature is the basis of legal measures. The main legal documents in the field of combating terrorism are currently:
– The concept of national security of the Russian Federation, announced by Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of December 17, 1997 No. 1300;
– Federal Law “On the fight against terrorism” dated June 25, 1998 No. 130-FZ. The law defines the legal and organizational foundations for the fight against terrorism in the Russian Federation, the procedure for coordinating the activities of federal executive bodies engaged in the fight against terrorism, public associations and organizations, regardless of their form of ownership, officials and individual citizens, as well as the rights, obligations and guarantees of citizens in connection with the implementation of the fight against terrorism;
– a number of resolutions and orders of the Government of the Russian Federation:
1) “On measures to counter terrorism”,
2) “On the federal anti-terrorist commission”, etc.;
– recommendations of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of the Russian Federation “On the creation of civil organizations in the territories of municipalities and their use in the fight against terrorism”;
– Order of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation and the Ministry of Emergency Situations of the Russian Federation “On improving the system for providing emergency medical care to persons affected by terrorist acts”;
– various legal documents of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation on the issues of combating terrorism, taking into account the specifics of these regions.
Planning for the protection of the population and territories in emergencies caused by terrorist acts at any level should be reflected in the Action Plan for the Prevention and Elimination of Emergency Situations.
When planning, the circumstance should be taken into account that any emergencies, the sources of which are man-made or natural causes, have, according to the criterion of consequences, a certain proportion of “accidental events”, while a terrorist act leading to such a situation is prepared quite carefully and minimizes the factor of chance. , which in turn leads to more serious negative consequences.
This provision should be especially taken into account when planning such advance measures as engineering and technical, increasing the stability of the operation of facilities in various conditions, and medical and preventive measures.
Creation and maintenance in constant readiness of forces and means for the prevention and elimination of emergencies caused by terrorist attacks.
For the direct fight against terrorism at its various stages, as a rule, the governing bodies and structural subdivisions of the following ministries and departments of the Russian Federation are involved:
1) Federal Security Service – prevention, detection and suppression of terrorist activities; prevention, detection and suppression of attempts by terrorists to violate the state border of the Russian Federation and illegal movement across the border of the Russian Federation of weapons, explosive, dangerous chemical and radioactive substances, as well as objects that can be used as means of committing terrorist acts; participation in ensuring the security of national maritime navigation and in conducting counter-terrorist operations;
2) Ministry of Internal Affairs – prevention, detection and suppression of terrorist activities with mercenary goals;
3) Foreign intelligence services of the Russian Federation – ensuring the security of Russian institutions abroad, collecting information on the international activities of terrorists;
4) the Federal Security Service – ensuring the security of objects of special importance;
5) Ministry of Defense – protection against weapons of various purposes, including WMD, ammunition, explosives, participation in ensuring the security of national maritime navigation, the airspace of the Russian Federation, participation in counter-terrorism operations;
6) Ministry of Civil Defense and Emergencies – participation in the elimination of the consequences of emergencies caused by terrorist acts.
The means used to combat terrorist activities can be conditionally divided into groups of means for preventing terrorist acts and means used to eliminate the consequences of these acts.
Means of preventing terrorist acts:
1. Undercover means – special means used by the relevant special services and departments.
2. Information and propaganda means – mass media and other similar means.
3. Means of direct control of the territory of the protected object:
– sets of optical devices;
– night-vision devices;
– thermal imaging surveillance systems;
– reconnaissance complexes.
After studying such phenomena as terrorism and considering measures to protect against terrorist acts, we came to the following conclusions:
Terrorism is a set of violent acts – assassinations, hostage-taking – which are committed by a political or criminal organization (mafia) in order to influence the leaders of one’s own or a foreign country. Another definition refers to terrorism as one of the variants of political struggle tactics associated with the use of ideologically motivated violence.
The essence of terrorism is violence for the purpose of intimidation.
The subject of terrorist violence is individuals and non-governmental organizations.
The object of violence is the authorities in the person of individual civil servants or society in the person of individual citizens (including foreigners, or civil servants of other states). In addition – private and public property, infrastructure, life support systems.
The purpose of violence is to achieve the development of events desirable for terrorists – revolution, destabilization of society, unleashing a war with a foreign state, gaining independence by a certain territory, falling prestige of the authorities, political concessions from the authorities.
A mandatory condition for terrorism is the resonance of a terrorist action in society.
Left unnoticed or classified terrorist attack loses all meaning.
Public response to a terrorist act is necessary for terrorists to change public sentiment. Attacks affect mass psychology. Terrorist organizations demonstrate their strength and readiness to go to the end, sacrificing both their own lives and the lives of victims. The terrorist loudly declares that in this society, in this world there is a force that under no circumstances will accept the existing order of things and will fight with it until victory, or until its end.
At the same time, terrorists tend to call themselves soldiers, partisans, saboteurs behind enemy lines, fighters for the faith – Mujahideen.
The threat of terrorism became a fashionable topic long before the explosions in Buynaksk, Volgodonsk, Moscow, and Beslan. This term has turned into a powerful political weapon, because there is no regime that would be insured against terrorism. This phenomenon applies to both dictatorships and democratic states.
The period has almost come when the armed struggle will take on a completely new character, without large-scale open military clashes. The seizure of foreign territories, and even more so their retention, will become optional and unnecessary. Massive impacts on humans will be carried out by qualitatively new means of destruction, including, not least, biochemical, geophysical, physical, etc.
If the fight against international terrorism is one of the directions of security policy, it requires the coordination of this policy of states, both at the national, regional and international levels – in this sense, the principle of the indivisibility of security21.
“Sovereign” unilateral actions of states in terms of strengthening their national security or in “self-defence” in the context of the fight against terrorism – the fight is international in nature and scale – will directly or indirectly contribute to the introduction of an element of geopolitics in this area. And this will play into the hands of the same terrorists.
The fight against terrorism in general is:
1) anti-terrorist defensive measures to prevent terrorist attacks, deter terrorists and deliver decisive retaliatory strikes against them up to physical destruction;
2) active counter-terrorism offensive actions to prevent terrorist acts.
At the same time, while the struggle of the world community against international terrorism is only at the initial stage of its systemic organization, the terrorist threat itself is acquiring more and more sinister forms: nuclear terrorism, bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, information terrorism. Unfortunately, we have to admit that the organization of the international fight against terrorism still lags far behind the organization of international terrorist activities.