Visibility methods

In physical education, methods of providing visibility contribute to the visual, auditory and motor perception of the tasks being performed. These include:

1) the method of direct visualization (showing exercises by the teacher or, on his instructions, by one of the students);

2) methods of indirect visualization (demonstration of educational videos, cinematographs of motor actions, drawings, diagrams, etc.);

3) methods of directed feeling of a motor action;

4) urgent information methods.
Let’s consider the main features of these methods Method of direct visualization. Designed to create a correct understanding of the technique of performing a motor action (exercises) among those involved. The direct demonstration (demonstration) of movements by the teacher or one of the students should always be combined with the methods of using the word, which makes it possible to exclude blind, mechanical imitation. When demonstrating, it is necessary to provide convenient conditions for observation: the optimal distance between the demonstrator and the trainees, the plane of the main movements (for example, standing in profile, it is easier to show the running technique with a high hip lift, swing movements in high jumps from a run, etc.) , repeating the demonstration at a different pace and in different planes, clearly reflecting the structure of the action.

Methods of mediated visualization create additional opportunities for the perception of motor actions by those involved with the help of an objective image. These include: demonstration of visual aids, educational videos and films, drawings with a felt-tip pen on a special board, sketches performed by students, the use of various dummies (reduced models of the human body), etc.

Visual aids allow you to focus the attention of those involved in static positions and a consistent change in the phases of movements.

With the help of videos, the demonstrated movement can be slowed down, stopped at any phase and commented, as well as repeated many times.

Drawings with a felt-tip pen on a special board are an operational method of demonstrating individual elements of the technique of physical exercises and tactical actions in team sports.

The sketches made by students in the form of figures allow to graphically express their own understanding of the structure of a motor action.

Dummies (models of the human body) allow the teacher to demonstrate to students the features of the technique of motor action (for example, the technique of running at various distances, the technique of crossing the bar in high jumps with a run, the technique of landing in long jumps with a run, etc.).

Methods of directed perception of a motor action are aimed at organizing the perception of signals from working muscles, ligaments, or individual parts of the body. These include:

1) guiding assistance of the teacher during the performance of a motor action (for example, the teacher holding the hands of the trainees while teaching the final effort in throwing a small ball at a distance);

2) performing exercises at a slow pace;

3) fixing the positions of the body and its parts at certain moments of the motor action (for example, fixing the position of the body links before performing the final effort in throwing);

4) the use of special training devices that allow you to feel the position of the body at various moments of the movement.

Methods of urgent information. Designed to provide a teacher and students with the help of various technical devices (strain platforms, electrogoniometers, photoelectronic devices, light and sound leaders, electric targets, etc.) urgent and prelaminar information after or during the execution of motor actions, respectively, with the aim of their necessary correction or to save the given parameters (tempo, rhythm, effort, amplitude, etc.). So, for example, at present, various training devices (bike ergometers, treadmills, Concept II rowing machine, etc.) equipped with built-in computers that control the load control system are widely used in physical education and sports.

1 Outline of the training session.

The outline plan is a document for planning the pedagogical process in physical education for each lesson (lesson). This is the most detailed lesson plan necessary for the operational management of the educational process. The effectiveness of any lesson is associated primarily with a clear, correct formulation of its tasks, reflected in the outline plan. When setting tasks, one should proceed from the content of the lesson work plan, take into account the results of the previous lesson and the complexity of mastering new material, as well as the composition of those involved, their preparedness, and the conditions of the place of employment. The number of planned tasks is determined by the possibilities of their implementation in one lesson. In the outline of the lesson, the main tasks to be solved in the main part of the lesson, and private ones are formulated. Particular tasks should be formulated for separate exercises in each part of the lesson and indicated in a special column of the outline plan. Pedagogical tasks must be formulated as specifically as possible so that they can be solved within the framework of one or more classes.

The content of lessons in physical culture is determined by state programs and lesson work plan for a quarter.

When developing the content of a physical education lesson, it is necessary to:

1) determine the means and methods for solving each of the tasks of the lesson;

2) clarify the necessary equipment for the lesson;

3) develop methods for organizing the activities of those involved in solving each of the tasks;

4) determine the criteria for evaluating the activities of students in the lesson.

Initially, when compiling the outline plan, the content of the main part of the lesson is determined, and then, in accordance with it, the material of the preparatory and final parts.

In practice, there are different forms of compiling an outline plan. One of them is given below as an example.

The presented form is a detailed form of the lesson plan. Teachers with sufficient experience in pedagogical work and good professional knowledge use various options for an abbreviated form of the lesson plan.

Outline of the lesson of physical culture No. ___ for students of ___ class

Lesson objectives

one.___________________________________________________________

2._______________________________________________________________

3._________________________________________________________________

Venue______Date of event_______

______

No. Content Dosage Organizational and methodological instructions
preparatory;
Main
Final

Required inventory _______ Timing ____________

Notes:

1. In the first column of the abstract “Parts of the lesson”, the parts of the lesson are indicated in numbers (1 – preparatory; 2 – main; 3 – final) and their duration (in minutes).

2. The column “Partial tasks” contains tasks for teaching and improving the mastered motor action, as well as additional tasks that are small in content and are solved in parallel with the passage of the main material of the lesson. The solution of certain particular problems is provided in all three parts of the lesson.

Examples of private tasks. Preparatory part of the lesson: a) inform the objectives of the lesson; b) learn individual combat techniques; c) to promote the formation of correct posture, etc. The main part of the lesson: a) to create in students an idea of the studied motor action; b) to learn individual elements of a motor action (for example, takeoff and repulsion from the bridge during the vault); c) to achieve a soft and stable landing during vaults; d) familiarize with the basic rules of a mobile (sports) game, etc.

3. In the column “Content of the lesson” all the physical exercises provided for conducting are sequentially indicated in parts of the lesson. When recording general developmental exercises performed on several accounts, it is imperative to record the starting position (i.p.) and actions on each account. If the group method is used in the main part of the lesson, then the content of the exercises for each department is recorded in the summary and the order in which the types of exercises are changed is indicated. Separately, exercises for boys and girls are recorded when planning different educational material for them in the lesson.

4. The column “Load dosage” indicates the number of repetitions of exercises, the time spent on the exercise (in minutes), the distance covered, etc.

5. In the column “Organizational and methodological instructions” the ways of organizing students, methods of performing exercises, requirements for their implementation are indicated, and entries are made such as: “report errors”, “provide insurance”, “remind the rules of the game”, etc. .

2 Specific sports training methods

The methods of strictly regulated exercise include methods that are mainly aimed at mastering sports equipment, and methods that are mainly aimed at educating physical qualities.

Among the methods aimed primarily at the development of sports equipment, there are methods for learning exercises as a whole (integral-constructive) and in parts (dissected-constructive). Learning the movement as a whole is carried out when mastering relatively simple exercises, as well as complex movements, the division of which into parts is impossible. However, when mastering an integral movement, the attention of athletes is consistently focused on the rational fulfillment of individual elements of an integral motor act.

When learning more or less complex movements that can be divided into relatively independent parts, the development of sports equipment is carried out in parts. In the future, the integral implementation of motor actions will lead to the integration into a single whole of the previously mastered components of a complex exercise.

When using integrally constructive and dissected constructive methods, a large role is given to leading and imitation exercises. In simulation exercises, the general structure of the main exercises is preserved, however, when they are performed, conditions are provided that facilitate the mastery of motor actions.

Among the methods aimed primarily at improving physical qualities, there are two main groups of methods – continuous and interval. Continuous methods are characterized by a single continuous execution of training work. Interval methods provide for the performance of exercises with both regulated pauses and involuntary rest pauses.

When using these methods, exercises can be performed both in a uniform (standard) and in a variable (variable) mode. With a uniform mode, the intensity of work is constant, with a variable – varying. The intensity of work from exercise to exercise can increase (progressive variant) or change repeatedly (variable variant).

Continuous training methods used in conditions of uniform and variable work are mainly used to increase aerobic capacity, develop special endurance for work of medium and long duration. Examples include rowing at distances of 5,000 and 10,000 meters with constant and variable speed, running at distances of 5,000 and 10,000 meters with both uniform and variable intensity. These exercises will, as a rule, contribute to an increase in the aerobic productivity of athletes, the development of their endurance for long-term work, and an increase in its efficiency.

The possibilities of continuous training methods in conditions of variable work are much more diverse. Depending on the duration of the parts of the exercises performed with greater or lesser intensity, the features of their combination, the intensity of work when performing individual parts, it is possible to achieve a predominant effect on the athlete’s body in the direction of increasing speed capabilities, developing various components of endurance, improving individual abilities that determine the level of sports achievements in various sports.

In the case of a varying variant, parts of the exercise can be alternated, performed at different intensities or with different intensities and varying durations. For example, when skating a distance of 8000 m (20 laps of 400 m), one lap is completed with a result of 45 s, the next one is free, at an arbitrary speed. Such training work will contribute to the development of special endurance, the development of competitive technique. The progressive version of the load is associated with an increase in the intensity of work as the exercise is performed, and the downward one is associated with its decrease. So, swimming a distance of 500 m (the first hundred-meter segment is swum in 64 s, and each subsequent one is 2 s faster, i.e. in 62, 60, 58 and 56 s) is an example of the application of a progressive variant. An example of a descending variant is skiing 20 km (4 laps of 5 km) with results of 20, 21, 22 and 23 minutes, respectively.

Widely used in sports practice and interval training methods (including repeated and combined). Performing a series of exercises of the same and different duration with constant and variable intensity and strictly regulated rest pauses is typical for these methods. Examples include typical series aimed at improving special endurance: 10 x400; 10 x 1000 m – in running and skating, in rowing. An example of a varying variant can serve as a series for improving sprint qualities in running: 3×60 m at maximum speed, rest – 3-5 minutes, 30 m – on the move at maximum speed, slow running – 200 m. An example of a progressive variant are complexes that involve sequential passage segments of increasing length (running a series of 400 m + 800 m + 1200 m + 2000 m) or standard length with increasing speed (swimming a distance of 200 m six times with the results – 2 min 14 s; 2 min 12 s; 2 min 10 s; 2 min 08 s; 2 min 06 s; 2 min 04 s). The descending variant assumes the opposite combination: sequential performance of exercises of decreasing length or performance of exercises of the same duration with a gradual decrease in their intensity.

In one complex, progressive and descending variants can also be combined.

Exercises using interval methods can be performed in one or more series.

In the modes of continuous and interval work in sports training, a circular method is also used, aimed at selective or complex improvement of physical qualities.

The game method is used in the process of sports training not only for initial training in movements or selective influence on individual abilities, but for the complex improvement of motor activity in complicated conditions. To the greatest extent, it allows you to improve such qualities and abilities as dexterity, resourcefulness, quick orientation, independence, and initiative. In the hands of a skilled teacher, it also serves as a very effective method of instilling collectivism, camaraderie, conscious discipline, and other moral qualities of the individual.

Equally important is its role as a means of active recreation, switching those involved in a different type of physical activity in order to accelerate and increase the efficiency of adaptation and recovery processes, maintain the previously achieved level of preparedness.

The gaming method is most often embodied in the form of various outdoor and sports games.

The competitive method involves a specially organized competitive activity, which in this case acts as the best way to increase the effectiveness of the training process. The use of this method is associated with high requirements for the technical-tactical, physical and mental capabilities of an athlete, causes profound changes in the activity of the most important systems of the body and thereby stimulates adaptation processes, provides an integral improvement of various aspects of the athlete’s preparedness.

When using the competitive method, the conditions for conducting competitions should be widely varied in order to bring them as close as possible to those requirements that are most conducive to solving the tasks set.

Competitions can be held in complicated or easier conditions compared to the official ones.

Examples of complicating competition conditions include the following:

— competitions in mid-mountain conditions, hot climate, in bad weather conditions (strong headwind in sprinting, cycling, etc.);

– competitions in sports games on smaller fields and grounds, with a larger number of players in the opposing team;

– conducting a series of bouts (in wrestling) or fights (in boxing) with relatively short rest breaks against several opponents;

– competitions in games and martial arts with “uncomfortable”
opponents using unusual technical and tactical
some schemes of wrestling.

Facilitation of the conditions of the competition can be provided:

– planning competitions at shorter distances in cyclical events;

– a decrease in the duration of fights, fights in martial arts;

— simplification of the competitive program in complex coordination, dynamic types;

– the use of lightweight projectiles in athletics throwing;

– reducing the height of the net in volleyball, the height of the ring in basketball;

– using a “handicap”, in which a weaker participant is given a certain advantage – he starts a little ahead (or earlier) of other participants, gains an advantage in abandoned pucks or balls (in sports games), etc.

3 The stage of in-depth learning and the stage of consolidation and further improvement of motor action

2. The stage of in-depth learning. The goal is to develop a full-fledged motor skill.

Main tasks.

1. Refine the action at all the main reference points, both in the basis and in the details of the technique.

2. To achieve a holistic performance of a motor action based on the conscious control of the spatial, temporal and dynamic characteristics of the technique.

3. Eliminate minor errors in technology, especially in its main link.

These tasks can be solved in parallel, i.e. simultaneously. The effectiveness of training at this stage largely depends on the correct and optimal selection of methods, techniques and teaching aids. Using the method of holistic performance of an action, it is necessary, in combination with it, to widely use visual, sound and motor visibility, aimed at creating sensations of the correct execution of technical details. The method of verbal influence changes its forms, analysis and analysis of the technique of actions, conversation become leading. This approach allows you to more deeply learn the technique of the studied actions.

At this stage, a complex of various means is widely used.

1. Exercises are used to strengthen the muscular system and the whole organism, taking into account the characteristics of the studied motor action.

2. Leading exercises are used, which prepare for mastering the main action by its integral imitation or partial reproduction in a simplified form. Lead-up exercises usually represent an element, a part, a bunch of several movements of the studied motor action. It is necessary that, in terms of the form and nature of the movements, these exercises have the greatest possible similarity with the main part of the movement being studied. For example, a student performs a run-up from three steps and takes off like in high jumps, but instead of overcoming the bar, he tries to reach a highly suspended object with his swing leg.

3. The duration of the application of lead-up exercises depends on the complexity of the motor action being learned and the preparedness of the trainees. There should be no breaks in the application of leading exercises, otherwise the previously learned movement will be forgotten and the effect of their impact will decrease.

The effectiveness of the use of various exercises (preparatory, leading, imitation) is achieved with strict observance of the following points: a) the goals and objectives of the exercise; b) structural relationship with the main motor actions; c) dosage of exercises; d) control and self-control of performance.

Within the framework of one lesson, training at this stage must be planned in the first half of the main part of the lesson, when significant fatigue has not yet set in.

3. The stage of consolidation and further improvement. The goal is to translate a motor skill into a skill that has the possibility of its targeted use.

Main tasks.

1. To achieve stability and automatism of a motor action. ,

2. Bring the individual features of technology to the required degree of perfection.

3. 3. To achieve the performance of a motor action in accordance with the requirements of its practical use (maximum effort and speed, efficiency, accuracy, rational rhythm, etc.).

4. Provide variable use of the action depending on specific practical circumstances.

4. These tasks can be solved both simultaneously and sequentially, since they are all closely interconnected.

5. At this stage, the number of repetitions in normal and new, unusual conditions increases, which allows you to develop a flexible skill. However, depending on the characteristics of the skill (gymnastic, gaming, etc.), an appropriate ratio of simple and variable repetitions of the exercise should be determined.

6. In order to improve movements, various methodological techniques are used: increasing the height of the projectiles, increasing the amplitude and speed of movements, in-line execution of exercises, repetition in the form of a competition for the quality of performance and results, in a game form, etc.

1 Game method of sports training

The gaming method is most often embodied in the form of generally accepted outdoor and sports games, however, it cannot be implemented with any particular game. In principle, it can be used on the material of a wide variety of motor actions, provided that they can be organized in accordance with the requirements of the game method.

The game method is characterized, first of all, by the “plot” organization: the activities of the players are organized on the basis of a figurative or conditional “plot” (concept, game plan), which outlines a common line of behavior, but does not predetermine rigidly specific actions and ways to achieve the game goal (winning ). Within the framework of the “plot” and the rules of the game, various paths and goals are allowed, and the choice of a specific path and the implementation of the game plan occur in conditions of a gradual, more often random, change in the situation. From this it is clear that the game method allows you to program the actions of those involved only with a greater degree of probability. At the same time, it provides the widest opportunities for the creative solution of motor problems and, to this extent, contributes to the manifestation of independence, initiative, and resourcefulness.

One of the essential features of the game method is that it simulates active interpersonal and intergroup relationships, which are built both according to the type of cooperation (between players of the same team) and the type of rivalry (between opponents in pair and team games), when opposing interests collide, game conflicts arise and are resolved. This creates emotional intensity and contributes to the vivid identification of the moral qualities of the individual.

However, the dosage accuracy in the game method is always significantly less than in the methods of a strictly regulated exercise.

The game method, by virtue of all its inherent features, is used in the process of sports training not only for initial training in movements or selective influence on individual abilities, but for a comprehensive improvement of motor activity in complicated conditions. To the greatest extent, it allows you to improve such qualities and abilities as dexterity, resourcefulness, quick orientation, independence, and initiative. In the hands of a skilled teacher, it also serves as a very effective method of instilling collectivism, camaraderie, conscious discipline, and other moral qualities of the individual.

Equally important is its role as a means of active recreation and switching those involved in a different type of physical activity in order to accelerate and increase the efficiency of adaptation and recovery processes, maintain the previously achieved level of preparedness.

2. Motor skill and skill, distinctive features, the mechanism of motor skill formation.

As the number of repetitions increases, the control of consciousness over the details is reduced and the motor action is performed as if automatically. Skill turns into skill. Unity, stability of actions appears. Thus , a motor skill is a high degree of strength and reliability of the performance of a motor action, characterized by automated (i.e. minimal control by consciousness) control of the action.

With skill, consciousness is directed mainly to the nodal components of the action, the perception of the changing environment and the final results of the action. (See Figure 1)

A motor skill allows an athlete to:

1.Reliably and stably exercise even in the state of
fatigue;

2. save mental energy, since the participation of consciousness in management
little movement;

3. save energy potential due to the precise work of the muscle
apparatus based on the coordination of the work of various organs and systems;

The activity of students in the process of teaching motor actions is educational and cognitive in nature. Therefore, the effectiveness of training as a whole is largely determined by the ability of teachers to organize the educational process in accordance with the physiological, psychological, pedagogical and structural patterns that underlie modern theories and concepts of learning (conditional reflex, step-by-step formation of actions and concepts, algorithmic prescriptions, problem-activity learning, programmed learning, etc.).

The theory or concept of learning is understood as a set of generalized provisions or a system of views on understanding the essence, content, methodology and organization of the educational process, as well as the characteristics of the activities of students and trainees in the course of its implementation.

Mastering the motor action is carried out in the following methodical sequence.

1. Formation of positive learning motivation among students. Motivation is a set of persistent motives, motives that determine the content, direction and nature of an individual’s activity, her behavior. Achievement motivation is an achievement mechanism developed in the psyche, which operates according to the formula: motive “thirst for success” – activity – goal – “achievement of success”.

The teacher, starting to teach his students should encourage them to a conscious, meaningful attitude towards the upcoming mastery of new motor actions, studying without much desire leads to various errors in the technique of the exercise.

2. Formation of knowledge about the essence of motor action.

3. Creation of a complete picture of the studied movement
for each OOT.
These submissions should include:

1) a visual image of a motor action arising on the basis of indirect or direct observation;

2) a logical (semantic) image based on the knowledge obtained by telling, explaining, commenting, comparing, analyzing, etc.;

3) a motor (kinesthetic) image, created on the basis of the student’s motor experience or on the sensations that he has when performing lead-up exercises.

4. Mastering the studied motor action in general. The performance of a motor action as a whole is started when the necessary knowledge and ideas have been formed for each OT.

The first attempts to perform are usually accompanied by increased tension of the entire motor apparatus, unnecessary movements, slow and constrained performance. This is a completely normal situation, since the student needs to keep all the main reference points under increased control, i.e. those elements, phases of a motor action, which determine the success of the action itself and require concentration of attention during execution. During the initial attempts, it is very important to use the methods and techniques of training in a timely manner, helping to navigate in the control of movements. Perform actions should be in standard conditions, as any changes may degrade the quality of performance.

At the end of an attempt to perform an action, analysis and evaluation of its performance and setting tasks to improve the action at the next attempt follow.

For the practical mastering of the technique of a motor action, repeated repetitions of movements with a focus on the best resolution of the motor task, elimination of mistakes made are necessary in order to master the movements better and faster.

A motor action formed by repeated repetition and brought to automatism turns into a motor skill.

When a motor skill is formed in the central nervous system, three phases of the course of nervous processes (excitation and inhibition) are successively replaced.

The first phase, when individual elements of movement are combined into a holistic action, is characterized by the irradiation of nervous processes with generalization of responses and the involvement of many muscles in the work. At the first attempts to perform a new motor action in the cerebral cortex, the nerve centers that ensure the execution of this movement, and neighboring centers that are not involved in the work, are simultaneously excited. In this situation, the antagonist muscles impede the free execution of the movement, it is carried out enslaved.

The second phase is characterized by the concentration of excitation, improved coordination, and the elimination of unnecessary movements. After repeated repetitions, the nervous processes in the cerebral cortex are gradually localized in those centers that directly provide the movement being performed, and the neighboring centers seem to be “turned off”. Here we can already talk about the formed motor skills.

The third phase is characterized by stabilization, a high degree of coordination and automation of movements. In fact, all the signs of a motor skill are fully manifested here.

The formation of a motor skill proceeds in accordance with a number of laws: the law of speed change in the development of a skill, the law of “plateau” (delays) in the development of a skill, the law of the absence of a limit in the development of a skill, the law of extinction, the law of skill transfer, etc.

Positive transfer is such an interaction of skills, when a previously formed skill contributes, facilitates and accelerates the process of developing a new skill. The main condition for a positive skill transfer is the presence of structural similarity in the main phases (individual links) of these motor actions.

Negative transfer is such an interaction of skills, when, on the contrary, an existing skill makes it difficult to form a new motor skill. This occurs with similarities in the preparatory phases of movements and in its absence in the main link. Negative transfer is caused by the spread of excitation through the cerebral cortex, insufficiently developed differentiation inhibition in the central nervous system.

3 Special preparatory exercises for sports training.

Special-preparatory exercises include elements of competitive actions, their connections and variations, as well as movements and actions that are essentially similar to them in the form or nature of the displayed abilities. The point of any special preparatory exercise is to speed up and improve the preparation process in a competitive exercise. That is why they are specific in each case, and therefore, relatively limited in scope.

The concept of “special preparatory exercises” is collective, as it combines a whole group of exercises:

1) bringing exercises – motor actions that facilitate the mastering of the main physical exercise due to the content in them of some movements that are similar in appearance and the nature of neuromuscular tension (for example, moving the legs from push-up lying to push-up while standing with legs bent apart is a lead-in exercise for mastering jumping legs apart over a goat in length);

2) preparatory exercises – motor actions that contribute to the development of those motor qualities that are necessary for the successful study of the main physical exercise (for example, pull-ups will serve as a preparatory exercise for learning rope climbing).

3) exercises in the form of separate parts of a competitive exercise (elements of a competitive combination – for gymnasts, segments of a competitive distance – for runners, swimmers, game combinations – for football players, volleyball players, etc.);

4) simulation exercises that approximately recreate a competitive exercise in other conditions (roller skating for a speed skater);

5) exercises from related types of sports exercises (somersaults from acrobatics – for a jumper into the water).

The choice of special preparatory exercises depends on the objectives of the training process. For example, when mastering a new motor action, lead-up exercises are widely used, and to maintain the required level of fitness in the off-season, imitation exercises are used.

1 Selection at the stages of initial training

The methodology of sports selection at the stage of initial training is determined by the main task of the first stage of selection – to help the child choose the right sport for sports improvement.

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