Varieties of medicinal raw materials of expectorant action

MANAGEMENT

The requirements for the design of the course work are not met. Must study carefully

To date, on the shelves of pharmacies there is a huge variety of drugs of various spectrums of action, herbal and synthetic. However, as before, one of the most important areas of medical and pharmaceutical science is the search for new sources of biologically active compounds in order to further expand the production of herbal medicines. First of all, this is due to the fact that herbal preparations have a mild pharmacological effect, have less side effects, are better tolerated by patients and can be used for a long time.

Recently, people have begun to trust the treatment with drugs of natural origin more than synthetic ones.

The relevance of the topic of the course work is due to the following provisions:

1) The variety of existing types of cough;

2) A huge range of herbal anti-cough preparations;

3) The use of herbal preparations without consulting a specialist.

Thus, the purpose of the course work is to study medicinal plant materials that have an expectorant effect and use in various types of cough.

To achieve the goal, it is necessary to solve the following tasks:

1) Conduct a review and analysis of the literature on this topic;

2) Determine the main groups of biologically active substances, due to which the pharmacological effect is manifested;

3) To study the medicinal raw materials of plants with an expectorant effect;

4) Formulate conclusions.

The object of the study is a medicinal plant material with an expectorant effect.

The subject of the study is the chemical composition and use of medicinal raw materials with an expectorant effect.

Research methods – to solve the tasks set, the following were used: the method of theoretical analysis, the method of practical research and theoretical generalization of the results of the work done.

CHAPTER 1. THEORETICAL BASIS OF COUGH

Cough and its types

Cough is a protective reflex aimed at restoring airway patency. It occurs as a result of irritation of the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract; prevents the penetration of foreign particles into the lungs, is involved in the cleansing of the respiratory tract from excess secretions formed during inflammation in the bronchi. [24]

In diseases of the respiratory system, the activity of the cells lining the respiratory tract – the ciliated epithelium – decreases, and the secretion of sputum, on the contrary, increases, and its viscosity increases. Despite the independent protective effect of sputum, its excess amount or increased viscosity impedes gas exchange and creates conditions for the reproduction of pathogens. As a result of inflammation, functional or structural disorders of the ciliated epithelium develop, which leads to a decrease in mucociliary activity. All this causes inadequate mucociliary clearance and contributes to the accumulation of sputum.

By its nature, the cough is dry (unproductive) and wet (productive). By duration, it is divided into acute (up to 3 weeks), protracted (from 3 weeks to 3 months) and chronic (more than 3 months). Considering that cough is precisely a protective reaction in various diseases, the main task of therapy is not to eliminate, but to alleviate its course. Elimination (suppression) is carried out in the case of a dry painful cough: it requires the appointment of expectorants. [24]

CHAPTER 2. EXPECTORANTS OF PLANT ORIGIN

Varieties of medicinal raw materials of expectorant action

Let us dwell in more detail on the study of herbal medicines that have an expectorant effect.

Expectorants – medicines that facilitate the separation of sputum when coughing due to its dilution.

Medicinal plant materials of expectorant action can be divided into two groups:

1) Reflex action;

2) Direct action.

Medicinal plant raw materials of reflex action include:

Marshmallow roots,

rhizomes and roots of elecampane high,

coltsfoot leaves,

rhizomes with cyanosis blue roots,

grass violet tricolor and field,

large plantain leaves

licorice roots.

Expectorant drugs of direct action after absorption in the gastrointestinal tract have a direct activating effect on the secretory cells of the tracheobronchial tree, as a result, sputum becomes more liquid and, therefore, easier to separate. Medicinal plant materials of this group include:

common anise fruits

common thyme herb

herb thyme (creeping thyme),

common oregano herb,

buds of Scotch pine.

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Currently, 18 plants are approved for use as expectorants in Russia.

An analysis of medicines containing herbal pharmaceutical substances (Diagram 1) showed that among the most used medicinal plants for expectorant medicines are licorice, marshmallow, creeping thyme, anise, peppermint, eucalyptus leaves, mother and -stepmother, thermopsis, ivy and primrose. [33, 41]

Diagram 1. The number of trade names of medicines based on medicinal plants.

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