Using various advancement techniques (convergence, cohesion, deceived expectation), describe how Vanya looked at the plums and decided to eat one of them.

Speech embodiment of the idea

Theoretical part:

1. Elocution as a doctrine of the expression of thought.

2. Tactics of speech influence.

3. Basic qualities of style.

4. Tropes and figures as paralogical ways of constructing an utterance.


1. Editing. Check and correct, carry out its final literary processing:

Composition in the IX grade “I loved you …” (love lyrics by A.S. Pushkin).

I. Every person probably has books that you want to return to again and again.

II. For me, these are the volumes of Pushkin’s poems.

III. Like everyone else, I first got acquainted with his fairy tales, then at school I studied his poems.

IV. When the bright feelings of love began to invade my life, voluntarily or involuntarily, I realized that only the person who experienced it himself could write about love so penetratingly.

V. However, in one of the books about Pushkin, I was surprised to read that the director of the lyceum where he studied spoke of him as a person “desecrated by all the erotic works of French literature.”

VI. Meticulous literary critics calculated that he dedicated his poems to one hundred and thirty-seven women, and many of them loved the poet.

VII. They just did not understand that genius is sometimes allowed more than others, that without inspiration, which is caused by love, beautiful works about love are impossible.

VIII. They arise because the poet is in love and wants to express and express his feelings.

IX. But the most precious and valuable thing for me is not that the poet had many hobbies, but that after marrying Natalya, Pushkin loved only her and dedicated his poems to his wife:

No, no, I must not, I dare not, I cannot

To indulge madly in the excitement of love:

I keep my calmness strictly

And I don’t let my heart burn and forget…

X. It is difficult to be the wife of a genius if you are young and beautiful.

XI. There was everything in their family life: joys, high love, four children, but there were, of course, omissions and quarrels. And also separation.

HP. But no matter how hard it was for them, nothing could overshadow their sincere love.

XIII. Pushkin’s heart could not help but love Natalya Nikolaevna, which is why Pushkin decided to duel with Dantes – he stood up for the honor of his wife and his own honor.

XIV. For two days, struggling with death, after a fatal duel, it was not easy for him to think that he had left his family without funds.

XV. But perhaps he remembered his lines, referring them now to Natalya:

I loved you so sincerely, so tenderly

How God forbid you be loved to be different.

XVI. Leafing through the poet’s poems, I think what amazing people lived and how they knew how to love.

XVII. Will I meet something similar in my life?

The following tasks are performed according to the text

L. N. Tolstoy Bone.

Mother bought plums and wanted to give them to the children after dinner. They were on a plate. Vanya never ate plums and kept sniffing them. And he really liked them. I really wanted to eat. He kept walking past the plums. When no one was in the room, he could not resist, grabbed one plum and ate it. Before dinner, the mother counted the plums and sees that one is missing. She told her father.

At dinner, the father says: “Well, children, has anyone eaten one plum?” Everyone said, “No.” Vanya blushed like a cancer, and also said: “No, I didn’t eat.”

Then the father said: “What one of you has eaten is not good; but that’s not the problem. The trouble is that there are seeds in plums, and whoever does not know how to eat them and swallows a stone will die in a day. I’m afraid of it.”

Vanya turned pale and said: “No, I threw the bone out the window.”

And everyone laughed, and Vanya began to cry.

2. With the help of what language means it is possible to enhance the expressiveness of the text. Write your own version of the text.

Using various advancement techniques (convergence, cohesion, deceived expectation), describe how Vanya looked at the plums and decided to eat one of them.

4. I. S. Ipatova names the following monologue dialogization techniques : “The monologue dialogization techniques include a frequently used problem situation , designed to stimulate cognitive interest, as well as an empathy technique , when the speaker enthusiastically and in detail describes the events connecting him with the audience . The question-answer construction of the main part gives the speaker the opportunity to give the audience the impression that they have been delegated the ability to make decisions on the problem under discussion. The method of putting forward unexpectedly new hypotheses and proposals also brings the speaker closer to the audience and, in addition, creates a reputation for him as an interesting, “non-standard thinking” interlocutor ”(Ipatova I. S. Practical rhetoric, or Man in the context of speech, Nizh. Novgorod, 2004).

Using the techniques listed, enter the elements of the dialogue in your version of the text.

5. Write an introduction to your text, using the following techniques to stimulate the interest of listeners: appeal to the interests of the audience, “live inclusion”; appeal to known sources (or their authors), citation; appeal to actual events, examples; statistical data; showing the significance of information, forecast; novelty of the material, “surprise effect”; creation (statement) of a paradoxical situation, “provocation”; a brief digression from the topic; comparison, comparison of all “for” and “against”; a fundamentally new assessment of a well-known event, phenomenon.

Please note that admission is an appeal to the interests of the audience. typical for speakers who immediately start with the main thing (the only condition for “live connection” is that the audience must be prepared to perceive the material). You can start: “I will not make long introductions, I will start with the main thing …”. In any case, applying this or that technique, the speaker should be aware of responsibility. So, forecasting should be based only on real facts, and the use of fundamentally new factual material to achieve the effect of surprise requires the speaker to have serious basic training (he must be several times more informed than the audience). The creation of a paradoxical situation is often accompanied by a ” provocation “, which is intended to provoke a reaction of disagreement in the listeners. Here it is important not to deviate from the planned “murmuring” regulations, otherwise the situation may get out of control. Using this technique gives the speaker a short period of time to refine the wording, as well as to prepare listeners for constructive conclusions. The reception of a brief digression from the topic provides a return to it – but at a higher level of interest and attention of the audience ”(Ipatova I. S. Practical rhetoric, or Man in the context of speech, Nizh. Novgorod, 2004).

6. Suggest several options for the title of your text. However, none of the words of this sentence should be used in other sentences. Give speech options a) taking into account the positive stylistic coloring, b) taking into account the negative stylistic coloring. For example:

The sun shone with might and main. The sun was warm. The sun was kind to nature. The sun burned. The sun was on fire. The sun beat down mercilessly.


1. Volkov A.A. Fundamentals of Russian rhetoric. – M., 1996.

2. Golub I. B. Fundamentals of eloquence. M., 2000.

3. Klyuev E.V. Rhetoric. – M., 1999.

4. Mikhalskaya A. K. Fundamentals of rhetoric. Thought and word. – M., 1996.

5. Khazagerov G. G. Lobanov I. B. Rhetoric. – Rostov-n / D., 2004.

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