A. E. Lichko emphasized the importance of the following types of incorrect education.

Hypoprotection. In its extreme form, it manifests itself as neglect, more often a lack of guardianship and control, and most importantly, a true interest in the affairs, worries and hobbies of a teenager. A. E. Lichko, describing the types of improper upbringing in the 1970s and 1980s, noted that “usually, in our days of universal material prosperity, hypoprotection does not affect the satisfaction of the urgent needs of a teenager, but is manifested only by a lack of attention, care, guidance “(Lichko A.E., p. 86). In the last decade, hypoprotection extends to child neglect and abandonment.

Hidden hypoprotection is observed when the control over behavior is characterized by extreme formalism. A teenager usually feels that the elders are not up to him. Hidden hypoprotection is often combined with the hidden emotional rejection described below. Usually a teenager learns to bypass formal control and lives his life.

It is especially unfavorable for accentuations of unstable, hyperthymic and conformal types: such teenagers find themselves in asocial companies faster than others and get used to an idle lifestyle.

Dominant overprotection. Overprotection, petty con
control over every step, a system of constant prohibitions and vigilant
vigilant supervision of the adolescent. Hyperprotection does not give
the ability to ever make your own decision, does not accustom you to

The author notes the difference in the actions of this type of education on adolescents with different accentuations. If hyperthymic teenagers have it

leads to an increase in the reaction of emancipation, to a rebellion against parental prohibitions and even to leaving for an asocial company, then the dominant hyperprotection has a different effect on adolescents with psychasthenic, sensitive and asthenoneurotic accentuation – it enhances their asthenic features – lack of independence, self-doubt, indecision, inability to stand up for myself.

Indulgent hyperprotection. Excessive patronage, the desire to free the child from the slightest difficulties and unpleasant duties. At the same time, parents admire the imaginary talents, exaggerate the real abilities of the child. Indulgent hyperprotection interferes with the development of skills for systematic work, perseverance in achieving goals, and the ability to stand up for oneself. A crisis situation is created for a teenager: on the one hand, the desire to be visible, to lead among peers, and on the other hand, a complete inability to exercise leadership functions, to subordinate oneself.

This style of education enhances hysteroid accentuation, contributes to the appearance of hysteroid traits in labile and hyperthymic, less often in schizoid and epileptoid accentuation. In the latter case, this type of upbringing turns teenagers into family tyrants who can beat their parents.

Indulgent hypoprotection. As a parenting style, it was first described by Lichko’s employee A. A. Vdovichenko (1980) in delinquent adolescents. And this is no coincidence. With this style of parenting, the lack of parental supervision is combined with an uncritical attitude towards behavioral disorders in adolescents. Parents ignore signals from outside about his bad behavior, resent public censure, seek to justify his actions, shift the blame to others. They protect their child, by any means they try to free them from well-deserved punishments. Such upbringing cultivates unstable and hysterical traits. It is no coincidence that the authors, describing the type of education as condoning hypoprotection, speak of delinquent behavior, educational institutions of a strict disciplinary regime. It is necessary to carry out the restriction of their behavior with the help of state bodies, since family education of this type turns out to be untenable – people from such families do not recognize the authority of adults, except for brute force.

Lichko describes several more types of education that are not part of a single classification: this is set out by E. S. Ivanov

(1980) upbringing in a cult of disease, emotional rejection, conditions of abusive relationships, increased moral responsibility, conflicting upbringing and upbringing outside the family. *

Emotional rejection. With this type of upbringing, the child or
a teenager constantly feels that he is burdened, that he is a burden for
parents that without him it would be easier for them. The situation is aggravated if
there is someone else nearby – a brother or sister, stepmother or stepfather, who
much more expensive and more beloved (the position of Cinderella). -•>■

Hidden emotional rejection consists in the fact that parents, without admitting it to themselves, are burdened by a son or daughter, although they drive such a thought away from themselves, they are indignant if someone points it out to them. Parents may even outwardly show exaggerated signs of attention, but the child feels a lack of sincere emotional warmth.

Emotional rejection heavily affects labile, sensitive and asthenoneurotic accentuations, enhancing the features of these types. When emotional rejection is combined with hypoprotection, labile adolescents seek emotional contacts in street companies – as a result, traits of instability can accumulate on the labile core.

terms of abusive relationships. Usually combined with emotional rejection. A cruel attitude can manifest itself both openly – by reprisals against a child, and by a complete disregard for the interests of the child, when he is forced to rely only on himself, not relying on the support of adults.

Violent relationships can exist in closed educational institutions (tyranny of leaders) if the work of educators is formalistic.

Education in conditions of cruel relationships contributes to the strengthening of the features of epileptoid accentuation and the development of the same features on the basis of conformal accentuation.

Conditions of increased moral responsibility. In this case, parents have high hopes for the future of their child, often hoping that he will realize their own pipe dreams. In another case, conditions of increased moral responsibility are created when a minor adolescent is entrusted with non-childish concerns about the well-being of younger and helpless family members (G. E. Sukhareva, 1959).

Licko notes that most adolescents show sufficient resistance to increased parental expectations or difficult responsibilities assigned to them. The exception is

psychasthenic accentuation, the features of which are sharpened in conditions of increased moral responsibility, leading to psychopathic development or neurosis.

Contradictory upbringing. In one family, each of the parents, and even more so grandparents, may adhere to different educational styles. For example, there may be emotional rejection on the part of the parents and conniving overprotection on the part of the grandmother.

Education outside the family. Lichko notes that upbringing outside the family itself can be useful in adolescence, since life among peers contributes to the development of independence and the development of social adaptation skills.

Negative psychogenic factors are, according to the author, shortcomings in the work of educational institutions: a combination of a strict regime, bordering on hyperprotection, with formalism in its observance, leading to real neglect, the influence of the most morally corrupted adolescents, cruel relationships between pupils, as well as a lack emotional warmth from educators.

A. I. Zakharov speaks negatively about the replacement of the mother by a “group of educators” in nurseries, kindergartens, etc. (at present, it is not uncommon for privately hired persons to serve the child). According to the author’s observations, this leads to neuroticism in children.

Children’s resilience

Lichko concludes that upbringing in a harmonious family, supplemented and corrected by social education, remains the best for the development of a personality, especially in early and middle adolescence.

Craig cites as an example research on the successful socialization of children whose childhood was spent in extremely difficult conditions (poverty, life in the slums, wars, etc.). Unfortunately, the authors who have studied the formation of “hardy children” mix into one completely different psychological and “socialization” factors – a difficult childhood due to material, everyday deprivations (the example given by Craig is childhood with a prolonged illness of the father, mother’s illiteracy, poverty due to the high dependency load of parents with seven children) and

declining in families due to the personal characteristics of loved ones – alcoholism of parents, cruelty of adults: humiliation, beatings. Eschb Janos Korczak, observing the behavior of children in a summer camp for the poor, noted that these children (and their families. – A.T.) are divided into two groups – normally brought up children and street children, aggressive and cruel. In fact, poverty is not a fatally negative factor; the moral atmosphere in the family and the human potential of parents (or guardians) are important.

Craig notes that observing hundreds of resilient children,
subjected to difficult life tests in childhood and achieving success in life, showed that they have five common qualities:

1. They are socially competent and at ease
both in the society of their peers and among adults. Latest
often give them such characteristics: friendly, able to arrange!
to themselves, tend to learn from their elders.

2. Self-confident, difficulties only incite them, unforeseen situations do not bother them.

3. Often these children are independent. They live by their own mind and although they listen to the advice of adults, they do not fall under their influence.

4. They usually install several stable, giving
they feel secure in contact with other people (Pines, 1984;
Rutter, 1984). It can be relationships with both peers and with
teacher, aunt, neighbor.

5. Finally, these children strive for achievement. They see that I
can achieve a lot and change the conditions that surround them.

In this approach, there is an emphasis on the activity of the child himself (“set”, “sure”, “independent”). Only paragraph 4 hints at the significant role of caregivers. It is very likely that resilient children also have natural characteristics that are favorable for adaptation in any conditions (for example, a strong mobile type of the nervous system, a sanguine or phlegmatic type of temperament, a hyperthymic type of accentuation).

In Russia, an example of resilient children is the whole generation of post-war adolescents and young people, many of whom were orphaned and almost all lived in difficult economic and housing conditions. People who went through difficulties in childhood and adolescence (the presence of a stepmother, childhood during the war years, work at a factory ot..

adolescence), tend to emphasize their merits in successful adaptation. They say: “It all depends on the person,” referring to themselves. However, the influence of macro-conditions is obvious (a patriotic mood in society, certain ideals, the integrity of the ideology propagated by the media “Everything for the front, everything for victory”, the organization of life and study in an evening school, which helped the successful adaptation of children and despite difficult family conditions: orphanhood , poverty). Close people (according to the terminology of E. S. Kuzmina, “microenvironment”) had the greatest influence on the formation of the personality, since all macro-impacts (ideological, spiritual, cultural) are refracted through micro-conditions – the immediate social environment, usually the family, significant adults.

Emmy Werner and her colleagues conducted a 30-year study of resilient children living on the Hawaiian island of Kauai. Of the 201 children identified by the researchers as at risk due to the unfavorable conditions that each of them had at home, 72 turned into competent, responsive people with age, able to cope with the difficulties of adult life. Among the factors that contributed to the resilience of these children, support from the family, teachers and other adults who took on the functions of parents stood out significantly. Most importantly, these children had at least one person in their lives who gave them unconditional love (Werner, 1989a).

Our observations of children from dysfunctional families in a shelter (juvenile center) show that:

firstly, for successful development and a sense of security, it is important for a child to realize that at least one adult is always devoted to him (the unconditional love of a cat would be one adult);

secondly, for successful socialization and further social adaptation in life, this adult (socializer) must himself be successfully adapted. For example, a loving grandmother who gets drunk and is in conflict with neighbors and employers cannot be an agent of successful socialization of a child. The same can be said about the father, who got out of prison and “did not get on his feet”, whose adaptation in society is difficult (usually life is associated with drunken companies and brawls). The guardianship of some adult single women who have not reached psychological maturity is also problematic (according to Adler, in three areas – work, friendship and love);

thirdly, for the successful socialization of the child, he must have a positive attitude towards his parents.

Unfortunately, in modern Russian society, when raising children, these conditions are increasingly absent:

a) there are children who do not have a single loving adult:
for example, a family without a father, the mother rejected the child, the elder brother himself
desocialized (alcoholism, imprisonment);

b) the child has a relative who loves him and worries about him
him, but he himself is socially maladapted.

In both cases, the child’s socialization takes place with distortions: neglect, sometimes lack of basic care and nutrition, in front of him an unsuccessful model of behavior – conflicts between adults with neighbors and among themselves, drunkenness of relatives, the absence of a father or a father with extremely maladjusted forms of behavior (in prison, alcoholism ).

Be First to Comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.