Types of connection between an apposition and its headword

§ 91. From the point of view of their relation to the headword, appositions, like attributes, are subdivided into non-detached (close) and detached (loose) ones.

Non-detached appositions

§ 92. Non-detached appositions form one sense group with their headword and very often enter into such close relation with it that the two words form one whole. This is especially true in the case of titles, military ranks, professions, kinship terms, geographical denotations, etc., used as apposition.

Sir Peter, Mr Brown, Doctor Watson, Colonel Davidson, Uncle Podger, Mount Everest, the River Thames.

Being very closely connected with each other such appositions and their headwords may be treated as indivisible word-groups.*

* See also § 36 item 6.

Detached appositions

§ 93. Detached, or loose appositions form separate sense groups and are wider in their meaning than close appositions: they may give identification, explanation, etc., especially when referring to pronouns. They may follow the headword immediately or be separated from it.

He actually envied Jolyon the reputation of succeeding where he, Soames, had failed.

Cooper was three inches taller than Mr Warburton, a strong, muscular young man.

An apposition may also refer to a clause or a sentence, usually as an explanatory remark.

The night was muggy, a bit drizzly, windless, and very dark – the ideal conditions for a gas bombardment.

The adverbial modifier

§ 94. The adverbial modifier (or the adverbial) is a secondary part of the sentence which modifies another part of the sentence expressed either by a verb (in a finite or non-finite form), or an adjective, or a stative, or an adverb.

In case it modifies a verb the adverbial characterizes the action or process expressed by tlie verb and denotes its quality, quantity, or the whole situation.

The adverbial modifier may refer to:

a) The predicate-verb or to a verbal phrase.

John spoke in a whisper.

Bowen read the telegram aloud.

b) The whole of the sentence, especially if placed at the beginning of the sentence.

In the evening they gathered together again.

If an adverbial modifies a non-finite form, it becomes partof a gerundial, participial, or infinitive phrase or construction.

Felicity fell to the ground and after lying still for a moment began to crawl forward.

Scobie watched the bearers go slowly up the hill, their bare feet very gently flapping the ground.

Adverbials modifying adjectives, statives and adverbs usually denote degree or quantity. These adverbials modify:

a) Adjectives in their attributive or predicative function.

It was a very long story.

The story was extremely long.

He is six feet tall.

b) Statives in their predicative function.

I am quite aware of the situation.

c) Adverbs in their main function as an adverbial.

You speak English rather fluently.

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