Type of hypoxia Cause Mechanism of development

Practical lesson №21, 22

Topic 21. “Pathology of breathing”

Topic 22. “Respiratory failure. Hypoxia”.

The student must be aware of:

about the respiratory system;

– about the process of breathing;

– about the types and mechanisms of respiratory disorders;

– about clinical manifestations of external respiration disorders;

The student must know:

the main causes of respiratory failure;

– violation of alveolar ventilation;

– pneumothorax;

– impaired perfusion of pulmonary capillaries;

– violation of the diffusion of gases through the air-blood barrier;

– definition of concepts: “dyspnea”, “bradypnea”, “tachypnea”, “hyperpnea”;

– types of periodic pathological breathing;

The student must be able to:

use medical terminology;

-draw and schematically depict pathological changes in the respiratory organs.

1. Study the materials of lecture No. 2.1 “ Respiratory Pathology. Respiratory

failure. Hypoxia”

and relevant sections of educational literature:

a) I.V. Remizov, V.A. Doroshenko “Fundamentals of Pathology”, ed. 7th, “Phoenix” 2013. pp.98-115

b) V.P. Mitrofanenko, I.V. Alabin “Fundamentals of Pathology”, ed. “GEOTAR-Media” 2013, 195-208

c) L.V. Gorelova “Fundamentals of pathology in tables and figures”, ed. “Phoenix” 2013 pp.89-98

2. For self-control, answer the following questions :

1) What are the stages of the breathing process?

2) What are the differences between obstructive and restrictive disorders?

3) What is the essence of lung ventilation disorders?

4) What is the essence of different types of shortness of breath and pathological breathing?

5) What are the types of pneumothorax, and how do they differ from each other?

6) What is the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome?

7) What are the types and mechanisms of hypoxia?

3. Choose one correct answer:

1. HYPOXEMIA is:

A) a decrease in the oxygen content in the blood;

B) an increase in the oxygen content in the blood;

C) a decrease in the content of carbon dioxide in the blood.

2. DECLINE OF THE LUNG TISSUE IS CALLED:

A) atelectasis;

B) pneumosclerosis;

B) pneumothorax.

3. Spontaneous pneumothorax is a complication:

A) pneumonia;

B) bronchiectasis;

C) emphysema.

4. IN EMPHYSEMA, the respiratory surface of the lungs:

A) does not change

B) increases;

B) is decreasing.

5. WHEN ANEMIA IS DISTURBED:

A) perfusion of pulmonary capillaries;

B) transport of gases by blood;

C) tissue respiration.

6. BRONCHIOECTASIS is:

A) narrowing of the bronchus;

B) lengthening of the bronchus;

C) dilatation of the bronchus.

7. Collapse of the LUNG WHEN ITS COMPRESSION IS:

A) atelectasis;

B) collapse;

B) hydrothorax

8. OBSTRUCTIVE RESPIRATORY DISORDERS are:

A) a decrease in the volume and capacity of the lungs;

B) impaired airway patency;

C) respiratory failure due to compression of the lung.

9. IN ASPHYXIA:

A) hypoxia occurs;

B) acidosis occurs;

C) All of the above occurs.

10. HYPOXIA – happens:

A) congenital and acquired;

B) external and internal:

C) respiratory and mixed.

Fill in the tables: “Stages of breathing”, “Insufficiency of breathing and its manifestations”

(Methodological recommendations “Recommendations for filling out tables”).

5. Make a graphic image: “Types of periodic breathing.”

(Methodological recommendations No. 3 “Recommendations for compiling crossword puzzles and graphic structures”).

( Draw the corresponding curves and note the pathologies in which they are observed )

biota Occurs when ___________________________________________
Chyne-Stokes Occurs when ___________________________________________
Kussmaul Occurs when ___________________________________________

6. Make a graphic image: “Types of pneumothorax”

(Methodological recommendations No. 3 “Recommendations for compiling crossword puzzles and graphic structures”).

7. Define :

Hypoxia is ____________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

8. Fill in the columns of the structure “Classification of hypoxia depending on the causes and mechanisms of development:

Fill in the table “Types of hypoxia, causes and mechanisms of its development”

Type of hypoxia Cause Mechanism of development

(examples)

Respiratory————————————————- ———————

Fabric—————————————————————- ——————————

Exogenous————————————————- —————————-

Blood————————————————- ——————————

Circulatory————————————————- ——————–

10. Write definitions of concepts :

Hypoxemia – ____________________________________________________________

Hypocapnia – ____________________________________________________________

11. How do the parameters indicated in the columns change during cardiovascular hypoxia (increase or decrease):

12. Solve the crossword puzzle:

Horizontally:

1. Reservoir organs – places where blood is stored in the body

2. Oxygen starvation of tissues

3. Gas necessary for living organisms to breathe

4. Decrease in the concentration of CO 2 in the blood

5. A product that is formed in cells during respiration

Vertically:

1. Elementary structure of the brain most sensitive to hypoxia

2. Reduced blood oxygen pressure

3. Suffocation

4. Rapid breathing

5. Red blood cell protein that transports oxygen to cells.

13. Solve situational problems:

Task 1. A student in the class at the 6th lesson lost consciousness. It was stuffy in the classroom, the temperature in the room was 29 0 C. What pathological process caused fainting? (justify your answer) ________________________________________________

What rules of organization of the educational process were violated? __________________

Task 2. What type of hypoxia develops in pneumonia? ___________________________________________________________

Task 3 . Why does a person’s breathing become faster when he loses blood? ___________________________________________________________

Task 4 . Why does exercise tolerance decrease sharply with anemia? _______________________________________________________________

14. Make a dictionary of medical terminology on the topic:

Respiratory Pathology. Respiratory failure. Hypoxia”

(see Methodological recommendations No. 6 “Compiling a dictionary of medical terminology”)

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