Topography of the lower limb

The obturator canal (candlis obturatorius) is located within the upper edge of the obturator foramen. The walls of the canal are the obturator groove of the pubic bone and the obturator internus muscle. The obturator vessels and nerve exit the pelvic cavity through the canal to the adductor muscles of the thigh.

The muscular and vascular lacunae are located behind the inguinal ligament and are separated from each other by the iliopectineal arch, which runs from the inguinal ligament to the iliopubic eminence.

The muscular lacuna , lacuna miisculorum, is located laterally and is bounded anteriorly and superiorly by the inguinal ligament, medially by the iliopectineal arch, and posteriorly by the ilium.

The vascular lacuna , lacuna vasorum, is located medially to the iliopectineal arch. Anteriorly, this lacuna is limited by the inguinal ligament, the posterior inferior border is the pectinate ligament, the lateral border is the iliopectineal arch, and the medial border is the lacunar ligament. The femoral artery, vein, and lymphatic vessels pass through the vascular lacuna.

The femoral triangle (trigonum femordle) is located on the front of the thigh. The superior border is the inguinal ligament, the lateral border is the sartorius muscle, and the medial border is the adductor longus muscle.

Within the limits of the femoral triangle, under the superficial leaflet of the wide fascia of the thigh, a well-defined iliopectineal groove (fossa) is visible.

The iliopectineal groove (fossa) is limited on the medial side by the comb muscle, on the lateral side – by the iliopsoas muscle, covered with the iliopectineal fascia (deep plate of the broad fascia of the thigh). Distally continues into the femoral groove.

The femoral groove – located between the long and large adductor muscles medially, and the medial wide muscle of the thigh – laterally. Below, at the top of the femoral triangle, it passes into the adductor canal.

Femoral canal – candlis femordlis – in the region of the femoral triangle with femoral hernia. The femoral canal is a short section medially from the femoral vein, extending from the femoral (inner) ring of this canal to the subcutaneous fissure, which, in the presence of a hernia, becomes the external opening of the canal.

The anterior wall is the inguinal ligament and the upper horn of the falciform edge of the wide fascia of the thigh fused with it. The lateral wall is the femoral vein. The posterior wall is a deep plate of the fascia lata covering the pectineus muscle.

The inner femoral ring – annulus femordlis – is located in the medial part of the vascular lacuna. The walls are: anterior wall – inguinal ligament, posterior – pectineal ligament, medial – lacunar ligament, lateral wall – femoral vein.

From the side of the abdominal cavity, the femoral ring is closed by the transverse fascia of the abdomen – the femoral septum (septum femordle).

The adductor canal is canalis adductorius (gunter), the inlet is hidden under the tailor’s muscle. The lower – outlet – tendon gap (hiatus tendineus), is located on the back of the thigh, in the popliteal fossa, between the tendon bundles of the large adductor muscle. The anterior opening – the adductor canal is located in the fibrous plate.

The femoral artery and vein and the saphenous nerve (n.saphenus) pass through the adductor canal.

The channel communicates the anterior region of the thigh with the popliteal fossa. The medial wall is a large adductor muscle, the lateral wall is the wide medial muscle of the thigh, the pepper wall is a fibrous plate that spreads between these muscles.

The popliteal fossa – fossa poplitea – occupies the posterior region of the knee (regio genus posterior), has the shape of a rhombus. The upper angle on the lateral side is limited by the biceps femoris muscle, with the medial – by the semimembranosus muscle. The lower angle is located between the medial and lateral heads of the gastrocnemius muscle. The bottom of the fossa is the popliteal surface of the femur and the posterior surface of the knee joint.

The popliteal fossa is filled with adipose tissue, contains nerves, lymph nodes, blood and lymphatic vessels.

The shin-popliteal canal – canalis cruropopliteus (Gruber’s canal), is located in the posterior region of the lower leg between the superficial and deep muscles from the lower border of the popliteal fossa to the medial edge of the Achilles tendon.

The anterior wall is the posterior tibial muscle and the long flexor of the big toe.

The posterior wall is the anterior surface of the soleus muscle.

The upper (inlet) opening is limited in front by the popliteal muscle, behind the tendon arch of the soleus muscle. The anterior opening is located in the proximal part of the interosseous membrane of the leg. The lower (outlet) opening is located in the distal third of the lower leg, where the soleus muscle passes into the tendon. This canal contains the posterior tibial arteries, veins, and tibial nerve.

The inferior musculoperoneal canal is separated in the lateral direction from the ankle-popliteal canal in its middle third. The walls are the posterior surface of the fibula in front, and the long flexor of the big toe in the back. Carries the peroneal arteries and veins.

The superior musculoperoneal canal is an independent canal of the lower leg, located in its upper third, between the lateral surface of the fibula and the long peroneal muscle. Accommodates the superficial peroneal nerve.

Plantar furrows:

ยท Medial plantar sulcus – runs between the medial edge of the flexor digitorum brevis and the lateral edge of the abductor hallucis muscle.

ยท Lateral plantar sulcus – between the lateral edge of the short flexor of the fingers and the muscle that removes the little finger.

On the sole of the foot, along the plantar vessels and nerves, lateral and medial plantar grooves are distinguished. They are located on the sides of the short flexor of the fingers.

These grooves correspond to the location of the medial and lateral intermuscular septa of the sole of the foot.

Be First to Comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.