Topic: Prevention of health disorders

Theoretical lesson No. 5 (Lecture)

Content:

1. Fundamentals of prevention of cancer, diseases of the respiratory system, cardiovascular system, endocrine, nervous system.

2. Health promotion and prevention of mental health disorders.

3. Organization of technology for teaching the prevention of mental health disorders.

Let’s look at the risk factors.

1. Cardiovascular diseases:

– increased blood pressure – arterial hypertension;

– dyslipidemia (hypercholesterolemia);

– stressful situations, nervous overload;

– age 40-50 years and older, gender;

– genetic;

– diabetes mellitus (hyperglycemia);

– hypodynamia;

– obesity;

– addiction to meat, fatty foods;

– smoking, alcohol;

– rheumatism, sepsis (heart defects, etc.);

– streptococcal infection, etc.

2. Risk factors for diseases of the digestive system:

– violations of the diet, in the mechanical and chemical parameters of cooked food;

– food allergy;

– Abuse of drugs (polypolycragmasia and self-medication, improper treatment);

– smoking, alcoholism;

– psycho-emotional stress;

– ionizing radiation;

– genetic predisposition.

3. Risk factors for diseases of the respiratory system:

– heredity;

– exposure to allergens;

– passive smoking, alcoholism;

– air pollution;

– professional influences;

– infectious, parasitic factors;

– climatic factors;

– chronic heart failure;

– parasitic infections.

4. Risk factors for diseases of the endocrine system:

– heredity (genetic factors);

– gender, age;

– Glucose overeating, excess nutrition;

– infectious factors (viruses, microorganisms);

– obesity;

– environmental factors (microelement deficiency, iodine in water, food);

– alcoholism;

– impaired immunity.

5. Risk factors for mental illness:

– heredity;

– alcoholism;

– smoking;

– atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels;

– stressful situations;

– traumatism;

– professional influences;

– infectious factors;

– endocrine disorders.

Knowing the risk factors, we can determine what types of prevention, methods in the nursing process we can apply.

1. Cardiovascular diseases:

– changes in blood pressure (during all types of examinations of children, already in the student’s office, prevention), at a doctor’s appointment, home visits during preventive examinations and medical examinations.

This contributes to the early detection of hypertension and symptomatic hypertension, which serves as a further in-depth examination of the patient. Further measurement of blood pressure in the morning and in the evening for a week – “BP profile, blood pressure diary”.

Survey: what can we reveal with a survey (interview, screening)

– anamnesis – a) this is an understanding of age, in men – earlier, in women – more often in the premenopausal period;

B) whether the parents have cardiovascular diseases;

C) whether any infectious diseases preceded – tonsillitis, influenza.

D) smokes, how many cigarettes, for how long.

D) whether he drinks alcohol, how often and how much.

E) lifestyle, physical activity, exercise, exercise, how often.

E) there is an addiction to food – fatty, meat, and a lot of water was consumed.

Anthropometry detects overweight, obesity (weight change, BMI and OT).

Preventive examinations are preliminary and annual, in people with occupational hazards.

Employees are required to conduct research:

A) lipid composition of the blood – thus, an increased level of cholesterol and atherogenic lipids (LDL and triglycides) is detected.

B) Glucose level – hyperglycemia – Risk factors – diabetes mellitus – rapid development of atherosclerosis.

C) a blood test in the presence of infection – show inflammation. Nurses write out referrals for tests, conduct blood sampling, participate in the organization of preventive examinations, prepare outpatient cards, and do an ECG.

If GB, rheumatism is detected, then secondary prevention, dispensary observation, which provides for examination, treatment and preventive measures.

When risk factors for diseases are identified, together with the doctor, the patient is informed about a balanced diet, hypocholesterol diet, sleep regulation, physical methods and herbal medicine that help reduce the impact of risk factors.

In the “schools of patients” with GB , patients are given special literature, instructions on dieting, self-monitoring of their condition, taking medications, etc. And they control knowledge of these issues, which helps to prevent the progression of the disease, their complications, and protect the quality of life of the population.

2. Diseases of the respiratory system:

– survey, screenings (allergies, heredity);

– professional examinations (fluorography, Mantoux reaction);

– detection of hypersensitivity;

– analysis of climatic factors in the territory;

– observation of EVS foci and occupational hazards – work with animals, chickens, carriers of parasites (alveococcus);

– analysis of feces for I/hl (treatment upon detection);

– prevention – BCG vaccinations, against influenza, hardening.

Work in schools “Bronchial asthma”.

3. Endocrine diseases:

A) in the maternity hospital, they take a blood test from the heel for genetic studies, neither hypothyroidism, andreogenitis. syndrome):

B) professional examinations – blood glucose;

C) history – diabetes in close relatives, genetic predisposition;

D) prohibition of pregnancy, if 2 parents have FR;

D) determination of the hormonal background.

Secondary prevention – dispensary observation, work in “schools” for patients with diabetes mellitus – which explains the need to follow a diet and take medications, or insulin administration, self-control rules when performing physical activity, foot care features, insulin administration rules and blood sugar control, rules for using a glucometer and even self-help for symptoms of complications (drug overdose).

4. Oncological diseases:

Prophylactic examinations: fluorography, mammography (women from 35 years old 1 time in 2 years), smears for atypical cells (for erosions and a blood test for markers in women with CA (cervical cancer), in men PSA and examinations by a surgeon – digital examination of the rectum, urologist (men).

Thus, if we sum up the methods of disease prevention, we can see that there is a lot of work to be done and many risk factors can be identified during interviews, screenings, medical examinations with mandatory laboratory and instrumental examinations that reveal dysfunctions of various body systems. And the well-coordinated work of medical workers, the media, social workers in this matter is very important. But every citizen must himself be responsible for his own health and its safety.

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