Topic 4. Sociology of small groups

Problems to study

1 . The concept of social communities. The nature of social groups and their classification.

2. Small groups, their functions, purpose and classification.

3. Large groups and their features. crowd phenomenon.

4 . Status-role relations and the problem of leadership.

5. Group dynamics.

Dictionary work. Basic concepts

Social community, small social group, primary group, dyad, identification, quasi-group, triode, crowd, communication.

Questions for self-examination, repetition

1. What is a social community? What communities do you know?

2 . Why in sociology exists along with the concept of “social community” the concept of “social group”.

3 . What are the characteristics of a social group? What types of social groups exist?

4. What are the characteristics of a crowd? Crowd types.

5. What is the essence of group dynamics?

6. What role does the leader play in the group? Name the types of leaders.

Tasks and exercises

Exercise 1

How did you learn the concepts, terms?

Table 4

Is the definition correct? What is the correct answer? Define the term
1. Social relations are relations between stable communities of people (yes, no) Social relations are: a) the relations of people in the production process; b) relations between stable communities of people; c) relationships between people What is “social relations”?

End of table 4

2. Social communities are real-life collections of people connected by common features (yes, no) Social communities are: a) really existing collections of people connected by common features; b) a set of interacting and interconnected communities and the relationship between them; c) relations between stable communities of people What is a “social community”?

Task 2

Can it be considered a real group:

a) people who met for the first time in the laboratory, who will part forever after the end of the experiment;

b) student group;

c) people gathered at the bus stop living in neighboring houses;

d) representatives of the same nationality.

Explain your answer.

Task 3

There are two definitions of a group:

1 . A group is a reality or a set of people significant to an individual at a certain point in time.

2 . A group is a certain number of people entering into direct (face to face) interaction.

Which one is best for a small group?

Task 4

Assess the possibilities of applying social control methods:

a) in a small group with informal interpersonal relationships;

b) in an organization where there are formal and informal relationships;

c) in a large social group (caste, social stratum, class).

Task 5

There are seven subjects in the experimental room, and six of them are dummies; they behave in accordance with the experimenter’s instructions. Five different photographs of elderly people are shown on the screen.

The real subject is asked first. He does not hesitate to say that they are different people. But the fake test subjects take turns talking about their similarities. At the same time, they “convincingly” argue the answers: the photos depict the same face, but from different angles, so they do not look alike. The similarity is allegedly manifested in the eyes, the outline of the cheekbones, the number and location of wrinkles. At the end of the experiment, the real subject is asked again.

So: in 80% of cases, the subjects abandon the original opinion and succumb to the pressure of the group.

Why is this happening? Explain.

Task 6

What type of social group does the student group belong to? Justify your answer.

Task 7

Sociologists distinguish between two types of social groups – primary and secondary. Give them a description.

Task 8

Depending on the size, small groups are divided into:

a) dyads;

b) triads.

What is hidden behind these concepts? Describe.

Which of the two types would you classify as:

a) love triangle

b) lovers;

c) a childless family;

d) brother and sister

e) parents and child.

[eight; ten; eighteen; 25; 34(ch. 4); 45(ch. 6); 65(Sec. 4, Ch. 1,2); 66(ch. 5)].

Topic 5. Sociology of personality

Problems to study

1. Sociological concept of personality, its structure, main elements.

2. Basic sociological theories of personality.

3. Socio-cultural typology and socio-historical personality types.

4 . Social status and social roles of the individual. Roles prescribed and roles achieved. Self-realization of personality.

5 . Role conflicts: intra-role, inter-role, personality-role.

6. Socialization of the individual, its forms.

7 . Problems of the relationship between the individual and society. Personality and society in transition.

Dictionary work. Basic concepts

Personality, individual, social type of personality, modal personality, social status, social role, social prestige, socialization.

Questions for self-examination, repetition

1. What is the difference between the concepts of “man”, “individual”, “personality”? Is every person an individual?

2 . What are the main sociological theories of personality?

3. What is a social personality type? What social personality types do you know, by what criterion are they determined?

4 . What are the functions of personality? What is the “social status” and “social role” of the individual? How are these concepts related?

5. What are the main causes of role tension and role conflict? How are these concepts different? What is the nature of role conflict?

6. What is the mechanism of the impact of society on the individual and the individual on society?

Tasks and exercises

Exercise 1

What is the difference between the concepts of “man”, “individual”, “personality”? What personality of the twentieth century, in your opinion, is the most outstanding? Why?

Task 2

How do you understand the following expressions:

1 . N. G. Chernyshevsky: “To develop a person in a person.”

2. F. M. Dostoevsky: “To find a person in a person.”

3 . L. S. Vygotsky: “Personality is a social concept, it embraces the supranatural, historical in man.” (Psychology of personality. Texts. M., 1982. P. 16).

Task 3

In social science, an approach is widespread, according to which a person, without a trace, can be described based on the system of social ties and relationships in which he is included.

Is it really? Do you agree with this approach? Justify your answer.

Task 4

Do you agree with the statement that the beginning of individuality is more developed in a woman, and personality in a man? Justify your answer.

Task 5

“The more primitive the society, the greater the similarity between the individuals that make it up” (Durkheim, E. Method of Sociology. M., 1990, p. 129).

How do you understand this statement?

Task 6

How did you learn the concepts, terms?

Table 5

Is the definition correct? What is the correct answer? Define the concept.
2. Social communities are real-life collections of people connected by common features (yes, no) Social communities are: a) really existing collections of people connected by common features; b) a set of interacting and interconnected communities and the relationship between them; c) relations between stable communities of people 2. Social communities are real-life collections of people connected by common features (yes, no)
A social role is a specific model of behavior that must meet the expectations of others (yes, no) The social role is: a) the degree of recognition of the merits of the individual; b) the assessment that society gives to the status of a person or position; c) a certain model of behavior that must meet the expectations of others What is a “social role”?
Social prestige is the assessment given by society to the status of an individual. (Not really) Social prestige is: the degree of recognition of the merits of the individual; b) the assessment that society gives to the status of a person or position; c) a certain model of behavior that meets the expectations of others What is “social prestige”?

Task 7

Think and decide:

Personality traits are stable behavior patterns that are repeated in different situations. Which of the following concepts fit this definition: accuracy, cleanliness, laziness, fear, anxiety, courage, aggressiveness, hope, greed, cunning, responsibility, stupidity, consciousness, shame, guilt, claim, competitiveness, impulsiveness, enthusiasm, motivation , motivation, emotionality, interest, separation, joy, optimism, opinion.

Task 8

Confirm or refute this judgment: “Modern sciences proceed from the fact that each individual person personifies the whole of humanity. He is unique with his individual characteristics, at the same time he is repeatable, because he contains all the distinctive features of the human race.”

Task 9

Fill the table:

Table 6

Traits inherent in any person as a representative of the human race Individual traits inherent in an individual

Task 10

Behavior is a mirror that reflects personality. What is the role of external circumstances and ourselves in choosing a behavior model? Evaluate the criteria for choosing a behavior model:

a) it must not be directed against the law;

b) moral impeccability, honesty, conscience – the spiritual guarantor of the correctness of the choice of model;

c) taking into account a specific situation;

d) the significance of the goal that “pushes” the person;

e) self-critical assessment of the possibilities of using the chosen behavior model: your appearance, speech, etc.;

f) the ability to show those qualities that are expected from us and desirable to others;

g) _______________ (you can add).

Task 11

Do you agree with G. Tarde, who believed that the so-called social pressure only contributes to self-determination and a more vivid expression of each individual personality. Without this support, which provides him with a certain resistance, the individual could not move in the social environment, just as a bird could not fly without the help of air resisting its wings.

Task 12

In real life, there are many moments of humiliation of a person. Poll data show that not even physical torture is more terrible, but moral humiliation. Most of all, a person is afraid of losing his personality (or himself as a person). Why?

Task 13

Experts say: a person who first tried drugs after 20 years old is already a complete drug addict by the age of 30, but at the same time remains as a person. And a child who started to inject at the age of 13, by the age of 23, as a person, completely degrades. Why?

Task 14

On the basis of personal experience, try to analyze whether the educational school contributes to the development of the individuality of the student? How is it shown? Does it form the qualities necessary for life today? Which?

[2; 21 (ch. 10); 26; 28; 29; 32; 35; 38; 40; 45 (Ch. 7); 47; 50 (ch.5); 51 (Ch. 7); 52 (section 2); 53 (section 3); 65 (section 2, ch. 2); 66 (ch.5)].

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