The system of social protection of the population: essence, factors of formation and development

Decrees of the President and Decrees of the Government of the Russian Federation as a legal framework for organizational and administrative social work.

The legal framework for organizational and administrative work in social work is diverse.
1. Federal laws. Any law prescribes the connection and interdependence of any phenomena of objective reality. The law is a generally binding rule. For example, the Federal Law “On social services for the elderly and the disabled” of 02.08.05, No. 122 – FZ. The law contains a set of concepts, rules and procedures that determine the status of the elderly and disabled, their rights, relationships with society, the state, and various organizations. It legally consolidates the existing system of assistance to the elderly and disabled, determines the structure, minimum volume and procedure for the provision of social services to them.
2. The Decree of the President of the Russian Federation is a legal act issued by the President of the country and is of an information and methodological nature. For example, Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 685 of May 6, 2008 – “On some measures of social support for the disabled” or Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 775 of May 13, 2008 – “On the establishment of the Order of Parental Glory”.
3. Decrees of the Government of the Russian Federation. Decree – a legal act issued in order to resolve the most important and fundamental tasks, establish norms and rules. For example, Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 82 of February 16, 2008 – “On approval of the Rules for filing an application for the disposal of funds (part of the funds) of maternity (family) capital”.
4. Orders of the Government of the Russian Federation. Order – a legal act issued by the head in order to resolve operational issues, as a rule, has a limited duration and applies to a narrow circle of organizations and officials. For example, Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 170-r dated February 24, 2008 – “On approval of the Action Plan for the implementation in 2008-2010 of the Concept of the demographic policy of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2025»
5. Orders of the Ministry of Health and Social Development. An order is a legal act issued by the head of an organization acting on the basis of unity of command to resolve the main and operational tasks facing this organization. For example, the Order of the Ministry of Health and Social Development of Russia No. 203 dated April 29, 2008 – “On the provision of recreation, rehabilitation and employment of children in 2008-2010” or the Order of the Ministry of Health and Social Development of Russia No. 177n / 91 of April 16, 2008 – “On approval of the clarification on the procedure for assigning and paying a monthly allowance for child care.
6. Regulatory legal acts of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation regarding the organization and management of the social protection system of the region.

Organization of social services for the population (types of institutions, regulatory, financial support, personnel, material and technical resources).

Social service institutions, regardless of the form of ownership, are:

1) complex centers of social services for the population;

2) territorial centers of social assistance to families and children;

3) social service centers;

4) social rehabilitation centers for minors;

5) centers for helping children left without parental care;

6) social shelters for children and teenagers;

7) centers of psychological and pedagogical assistance to the population;

8) centers of emergency psychological assistance by telephone;

9) centers (departments) of social assistance at home;

10) night stay houses;

11) special homes for single elderly;

12) stationary institutions of social service (boarding houses for the elderly and disabled, neuropsychiatric boarding schools, orphanages for mentally retarded children, boarding houses for children with physical disabilities);

13) gerontological centers;

14) other institutions providing social services.

Social services for the population, carried out in accordance with the norms established by the state authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, and financial support for social service institutions are expenditure obligations of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation.

Interaction of bodies and institutions of social protection of the population with state and non-state organizations

The bodies of social protection of the population carry out their activities in cooperation with the departments of health, education, internal affairs, registry offices, communication centers, bureaus of medical and social expertise, charitable foundations, state and non-state pension funds, etc.

The system of social protection of the population: essence, factors of formation and development

The SSPP is currently understood as a set of legally established economic, social, legal guarantees and rights, social institutions and institutions that ensure their implementation and create conditions for maintaining the livelihood and active existence of various social strata and groups of the population, primarily socially vulnerable. In the Russian Federation, the right of citizens to social protection is guaranteed by the Constitution and regulated by law. Social protection is carried out at the expense of the federal, local budgets, specially created non-state funds.
For the first time, the need to create a SSZN was emphasized in a resolution of the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR in 1991. It was supposed to create a SSZN in a short time, fundamentally new, different from the one that existed in Soviet times.
Currently, the SSPP is emerging as a social institution, characterized by a set of social norms, principles, institutions and organizations and determining sustainable forms of social behavior and actions of people. We consider the institution of social protection as a complex system that is being formed in society to solve numerous interrelated social problems caused by the need to help socially vulnerable social strata and population groups.
1. Political factors
– They are associated with the strengthening of power, its social policy, its ability to influence the state of affairs in the social sphere and carry out reforms here in the interests of the individual, ensure peace and social stability in society.
2. Economic factors determine the nature and specifics of the functioning of the institution of social protection: economic consequences associated with the use of certain methods of regulating social protection; the value of the general level of consumption of the most important types of goods; income modeling through the collection of contributions, considered as a form of taxation and the provision of benefits in cash or in kind. The growth of savings and investment in social protection makes it possible to carry out decent unemployment insurance and pension insurance, material support for disabled citizens, strengthen the material and technical base of SO institutions, etc.
3. Ideological factors – Ideological factors reflect the economic life of society through a system of public views and ideas, actively influence its development through the activities of the state, public associations, parties, groups and strata of society.
Thus, the development of SSPP is actively influenced by factors associated with its deeper impact as a mechanism for regulating the entire set of socio-economic, political, spiritual and moral relations in society. All these factors are determined by the prevailing political doctrine, the state policy pursued, and the socio-economic situation in society. Their influence is expressed in the setting of specific goals and objectives for the social protection of a person in functions that implement the main goal of the SSPP: to provide assistance to a person or a group of people who are in a TLS.

7. Experience in organizational and administrative work in Russian institutions of social protection of the population with migrants.
At present, the bodies of social protection of the population are conducting versatile work with migrants. Social workers help each person who applies to solve his personal social, economic, legal and other problems, assist in establishing or restoring the necessary social relations. The work is carried out in contact with various departments (including the Pension Fund) and includes:
– conducting social consultations;
– carrying out activities for social rehabilitation in stationary and non-stationary conditions;
– identification of persons in special need of social assistance;
— social diagnostics;
— assistance to migrants in obtaining pensions and benefits;
— identification of persons with deviant behavior from among migrants and asocial families;
— prevention of deviant behavior;
– organization of cultural and leisure work with the elderly and disabled from among migrants;
— prevention of homelessness (including assistance in obtaining a hostel, temporary housing or the acquisition of one’s own housing);
— prevention of child homelessness (including the placement of children in orphanages and boarding schools); — interaction with various state institutions and public organizations on issues of assistance to migrants.
— informing migrants about the activities of social services;
— psychological counseling;
– psychological correction and assistance in social adaptation;
— socio-pedagogical work with children and adolescents;
— providing migrants with information about their rights and obligations, etc.

8. Experience in organizational and administrative work in Russian institutions of social protection of the population with disabilities
The implementation of the state policy in relation to the disabled is carried out through state structures, non-governmental organizations and public associations.
One of the effective mechanisms for the implementation of state policy regarding the disabled are federal and regional programs , the implementation of which is designed to provide the necessary conditions for the individual development and realization of the capabilities of people with disabilities. Such programs include: “Development and production of technical means of rehabilitation to provide for the disabled”, “Social support for the disabled”, “Children of Russia”, “Children with disabilities”, etc.
In many cities of Russia (Ekaterinburg, Rostov, Moscow), medical and social care rooms are organized , where Red Cross nurses carry out primary health care activities, perform simple medical procedures, and train the population in caring for the sick, the disabled and the elderly. In addition to medical and social assistance, they provide household services: they rent items for patient care, vehicles, crutches, etc.
In addition to government bodies, there are also departmental management units dealing with the affairs of persons with disabilities. Many polyclinics employ special doctors, as a rule, in the rank of deputy chief physicians of polyclinics, who give opinions and draw up documents for the presentation of citizens for disability to the social security authorities. In all administrations of districts and districts, special medical and social expert commissions (MSEC) have been created, which make the final decision on the disability of people, determine the groups of disability, issue documents (certificates) that serve as a legal basis for disability registration.
There are departments, departments, sectors in the social security system that assign a disability pension, monitor its indexation, recalculation of amounts, transfer of pensions to labor savings books or post offices, serve disabled people at home, etc. There are all-Russian societies of disabled people , deaf, blind.
Recently, the joint efforts of state and public organizations have become widespread in the provision of social assistance to the disabled. Bodies of social protection and the Red Cross Mercy Service act jointly in the interests of the disabled in a number of regions of Russia (Kaluga, Moscow, Astrakhan regions).
The areas of joint work are the preparation and implementation of social programs and plans, holding joint events and collegiums, meetings and seminars with managers and practitioners, organizing a brigade form of medical and social services for the elderly and disabled, creating rooms for medical and social assistance, training, etc. Comprehensive care for people with disabilities allows you to increase not only the number of people served, but also the volume of services provided. In the brigade form of medical and social services, simultaneously with household services, the medical social worker carries out medical activities (dressings, recommendations, etc.).

9. Experience in organizational and administrative work in Russian institutions of social protection of the population with incomplete families
To date, these centers and departments of social assistance to families and children have accumulated quite extensive experience in social work with single-parent families. It includes activities to provide various types and forms of direct social support to single-parent families, including the provision of material and household support, advisory assistance (legal, socio-pedagogical, psychological, etc.), the provision of social support within the framework of patronage, etc. The essence of this broad and multifaceted activity is to provide assistance to a single parent and his child (children) on a personal level in solving any problems of their life, ranging from receiving the allowance required by law, assistance in finding a job to providing psychological, legal, social and other services .
In general, there are four main areas that have developed today in the practice of social work with single-parent families of social protection institutions:
– provision of emergency, urgent measures aimed at the survival of the family;
– medium-term measures of a different nature aimed at maintaining the stability of an incomplete family; –
long-term measures of a different nature aimed at the social development of an incomplete family and its members;
– preventive measures of a different nature, aimed at preventing the emergence of “accidental” single-parent families.
Emergency measures include emergency assistance, the provision of one-time or regular financial support to an incomplete family, the provision of in-kind assistance (children’s clothes, shoes, school supplies, etc.). Urgent measures are also needed in situations where it is found that in an incomplete family, children are being abused by a single parent, left without parental care, etc. In these cases, there should be an immediate removal of children from a dysfunctional family, providing them with asylum, etc.

Medium-term social and psychological work , focused on the stabilization of family relations, on the social development of an incomplete family and its members, includes the normalization and harmonization of relations between family members, the relationship of all family members with others. The events held by the centers and departments of social assistance to families and children in these cases include, as a rule, both “children’s” and “adults”, and joint events, actions, group classes.

One of the significant areas of support for single-parent families in the framework of medium-term and long-term work is the provision of psychological assistance and support to them. Children and adolescents growing up in single-parent families, especially in dysfunctional ones, in most cases are in dire need of constant psychological work with them. As a rule, their single parents or guardians also experience an acute need for psychological support.
The social worker is called upon to solve complex problems related to the social and emotional development of this category of children, to provide them with comprehensive assistance and support, contributing to the adequate development of the child.

10. The main tasks and functions of the Department of social protection of the population of the region
The tasks of the department of social protection of the population at the regional (local) level are regulated by higher authorities with a certain independence and include:
– ensuring and solving production and economic problems;
– planning and financial and economic activities;
– Creation of various social assistance funds;
– solution of economic problems, etc.

In general, the purpose of the social protection system is manifested in its general functions :
1. The economic function is expressed in the provision of material support by citizens in a difficult life situation, in promoting the development of social production in general and individual sectors of the national economy, and the economic rise of priority development zones.

2. Political function , aimed at bringing together the social level of various segments of the population, creating conditions that ensure a decent life for every person. It is designed to stabilize social relations.

3. The demographic function contributes to stimulating the growth of the country’s population, the reproduction of a healthy generation, and the growth of life expectancy.

4. The social rehabilitation function is associated with meeting the needs of the elderly and disabled citizens. It is expressed in the creation of conditions conducive to the preservation of their legal status and the protection of the health of all citizens.

11. The main tasks and functions of the NOT and the planning of the work of the municipal department of social protection of the population
Scientific should be considered such an organization of labor, which is based on the achievements of science and best practices, systematically introduced into production, allows the best way to combine equipment and people in a single production process, ensures the most efficient use of material and labor resources, a continuous increase in labor productivity, and contributes to the preservation of health. man, the gradual transformation of labor into the first necessity of life.
NOT is considered as the highest level of labor organization, designed to solve three main tasks:
1. Economic. Its essence is to increase the productivity of social labor on the basis of the introduction of NOT while saving time and human energy.
2. Psychophysiological. It is aimed at a comprehensive improvement and alleviation of working conditions, ultimately allowing to maintain the health and working capacity of employees.
3. Social. Its solution should contribute to the comprehensive and harmonious development of the individual, the education of a new person, the transformation of labor into a vital necessity.
The main directions of NOT used in the work of social protection bodies:

1. Division and cooperation of labor. Selection and placement of personnel. Organization of creative work. Team building.
2. Improving the remuneration of workers. Elimination of wage equalization.

3. Organization of the workplace. Equipment, layout.

4. Creation of favorable working conditions: sanitary-hygienic and psychophysiological (relationships in the team).

5. Rationalization of techniques and methods of work.

6. Education of a conscious and creative attitude to work. Strengthening labor discipline.

Schedules and plans are drawn up in the district (city) bodies of social protection of the population. Work schedules are approved by the administration of the city or district. Work schedules of social protection authorities
1. The work schedule of the entire district (city) body of social protection of the population, indicating working days, days off, the beginning, end of work, a break in work. Reception days are indicated separately with an indication of the time of admission. Under the precinct system in the district (city) body of social protection of the population, 2-3 days of receptions. If the district (city) body of social protection of the population works with the use of functional specialization, then all working days are reception days.
2. Work schedules of each specialist. The surname, name, patronymic of the specialist and the reception days and time of reception are required to be indicated on the door.
Reception days should coincide with all employees of the district (city) body of social protection of the population, so that in case of dissatisfaction with the specialist’s answer, you can contact the head or deputy. Plans must be specific, realistically executable, be sure to contain the date of execution and the executor. All plans and schedules drawn up in the district (city) body of social protection of the population must be signed by the head.

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