The structure of socio-psychological impact

The question of the structure of the socio-psychological impact is quite complex, firstly, due to its insufficient elaboration in the literature and, secondly, due to the variety of methods of influence and the changes associated with it, described in it in a rather chaotic form.

The classical structure of socio-psychological impact is presented within the framework of the approach from the standpoint of communication theory and includes the following components:

1. The subject of socio-psychological impact – a person, group, information resource, mass media, situation and much more, organizing and implementing a system of actions aimed at changing the system of social attitudes, ideas, relationships, behavior, etc. individual or group in order to achieve a given goal. A person may strive to make an appropriate impression on his surroundings. A group can exert pressure on its members to conform to group norms. The mass media, while propagating certain ideas, seek to form the appropriate worldview of their audience, instilling in it certain ideals and values. Getting into a specially organized environment, a person begins to experience its influence, designed to incline him to a certain behavior.

2. The object of socio-psychological impact – an individual, group, society, which is directed to the impact. When organizing the impact on these objects, their individual characteristics inherent in them in connection with the specifics of the method or means of influence used are taken into account.

3. The content of the sociopsychological impact – message, information, actions aimed at changing the existing system of social attitudes, ideas, behavioral attitudes, etc.

4. Means of sociopsychological impact – methods, technological support, techniques through which the study of the system of social attitudes, ideas, relationships, behavior, etc. is achieved. With the means of influence, such methods as persuasion, suggestion, infection, imitation, etc. are usually associated.

5. The result of socio-psychological impact – changes in social attitudes, ideas, attitudes, behavior of people, achieved through impact aimed at achieving certain goals. The restructuring of the system of social attitudes, ideas, relationships, behavior of an individual or group under the influence of psychological influence can be different both in terms of the breadth of coverage of the affected aspects and the stability of their changes.

Thus, the socio-psychological impact should be considered as a closed system, the structural components of which are combined into a single whole by complex multi-level connections and relationships.

3 Methods of socio-psychological influence

The influence of one communication partner on another is aimed at changing or shaping the attitudes of the latter by providing him with certain information. The effect of influence on a person depends not only on the content of this information, but also on what methods of influence were used.

Methods of psychological influence are the main tools by which the consciousness and subconsciousness of people are influenced.

Persuasion as a method of psychological influence is a logically reasoned influence on the rational sphere of people’s consciousness. Persuasion is always focused on the intellectual and cognitive sphere of the psyche of people and groups.

The purpose of persuasion is to create, strengthen or change the views, opinions, assessments, attitudes of the object of influence so that the latter accepts the point of view of the persuader and follows it in his activities and behavior. An important feature of persuasion is that the degree of persuasive influence largely depends on the degree of interest in this person or group to which it is directed.

Persuasive influence must meet certain requirements:

Ø it is advisable to use it only when people are able to analyze the information received;

Ø persuasion is possible only if the object of influence seeks to understand the addressed information, weigh the conformity of the conclusions to the argumentation system and, with sufficient conformity, agree with the point of view imposed on him;

Ø persuasion is possible if the object of influence has the ability to compare different points of view, analyze the argumentation system;

Ø persuasion is feasible only with a similar understanding of the arguments and conclusions by the subject and object of psychological influence;

Ø Persuasion can only be applied when the time frame allows.

Mental infection is a process of transferring an emotional state from one individual to another at the psychophysiological level of contact.

In contrast to imitation and comfort, infection acts as a form of a spontaneously appearing mechanism of human behavior, due to its susceptibility to certain mental states. Explosive forms of manifestation of emotions, feelings and passions are a powerful catalyst for the transfer of mental attitude from the communicator to the recipient.

The main function of socio-psychic infection is the psychological impact on groups. In a crowd, people are more susceptible to infection and suggestion.

Imitation is the following of any patterns and examples. It is aimed at the external identification by the individual of himself with some significant person for himself. When striving to imitate, the subject adopts from a significant other manners of behavior, voice, facial expressions, gait, habits, manner of dressing. Everyone can recall examples of imitation that characterized his behavior and actions at certain stages of life.

You can not equate imitation with infection. Imitation is aimed at the reproduction by a person of certain external features, patterns of behavior and actions and is accompanied by emotional manifestations. Infection, as a mental state, arises through a person’s empathy with the internal, mental moods and experiences of other people. Despite these differences, both of these states are united by the fact that the same behavioral act can be both an object of imitation and a factor of mental infection.

Suggestion as a method of psychological influence is influencing the consciousness of an individual or a group of people, based on an uncritical (and often unconscious) perception of information.

The most important feature of suggestion, unlike persuasion, is its focus not on a person’s ability to think and reason, and not on his readiness to receive orders, instructions for action. That is why suggestion does not need a system of logically interconnected evidence and a deep awareness of the meaning of the information being communicated. Argumentation here is often replaced by a statement of what is suggested.

The principles of suggestion usually boil down to the following:

– those types and techniques of suggestion that can arouse specific interest in certain specific groups of people should be used;

– it is necessary to use those methods and techniques of suggestion that can annul unwanted motivation or moods resulting from the influence of information and events that are not amenable to default;

– those methods and techniques of suggestion should be used that have a chance not to cause a refutation until the main goal of psychological influence is achieved.

Autogenic training as a special case of self-hypnosis . This is a system of methods of self-influence, with the help of which it becomes possible to control some involuntary mental processes and states of the body.

Thus, the problematic layer of socio-psychological impact is considered, which creates the necessary basis for considering further topical issues of social psychology .

4 Features of the impact on people in modern conditions

FASHION

In modern conditions, when the technological world develops first, and secondly, everything else, a person enters one of the main stages, mainly a person is a device of consumption, whether it be information or some other necessity. In the modern world, people have increasingly begun to put pressure on the opinion of a person through various methods that we will analyze. A person, not fully realizing, goes on about one or another kind of socio-psychological tricks. And this in the modern world is used by many people or companies interested in this. Next, we will analyze what influences are exerted on the opinion of a person in the modern world.

Fashion as a factor of psychological influence. Fashion is a short-term form of standardized mass behavior that occurs predominantly spontaneously, under the influence of moods that dominate at certain periods in a given society and rapidly changing tastes and hobbies. Psychologists point to two socio-psychological mechanisms for the emergence and development of fashion. The first of them is the phenomenon of assimilation, identification of people. Here the conformism of the personality is manifested – the desire developed in a person not to stand out among others, to be like everyone else. The second mechanism is the phenomenon of isolation, separation of oneself from the main mass of people. However, in fashion there is a place for a conscious choice of forms of behavior, this is an orientation towards fashion not only, say, in clothing, but also in spiritual activity.

Fashion is driven, as a rule, by two motives: imitation and fear of being left out of society. In order to keep abreast of the next trend, there are thematic magazines, websites and Internet networks and television programs. In addition, there are certain societies that are carried away by the next trend. They arrange thematic meetings, trying to attract “comrades-in-arms”. After some time, as a rule, these communities “fade away” and cease to exist.

The continued existence of fashion in all countries of our world is a clear evidence that fashion is a mass phenomenon of the psyche and performs important social functions, the number of which is quite large.

Fashion is one of the socially significant means of personal identification, which is so important for the younger generation, which is still forming its self-consciousness and looking for its position in society. It also carries the function of determining the prestige of certain objects and phenomena, this factor can contribute to both their increase and decrease. In addition, fashion also contributes to psychophysiological relaxation, which is especially significant in modern post-industrial and urbanized society, where a number of individuals are offered the monotony of many production processes, the monotony of the urban environment, the standard nature of industrial products, and so on. Some functions of fashion operate at the level of the whole society, while others act at the level of individual social needs of a person.

ADVERTISING

We have already said that in our research in the field of advertising

scientists widely use the forms and methods of such scientific disciplines as

psychology, sociology, communication theory, mathematics, etc.

In advertising, visual and auditory sensations are most often used. Although

in some cases, advertising may be based on other types of sensations.

For example, at car shows, visitors are sometimes offered

drive a car to experience a sense of comfort. Thereby

vibrational, motor and other sensations are used.

Another example: during the presentation of a company that produces or sells

food or drinks that can be used as advertising

gustatory or olfactory sensations.

Advertising activity has become an objective reality of our

Everyday life. Effective advertising is only possible if

it is done professionally. And this is increasingly taken into account by science and

practice. The phenomenon of advertising is of ever-increasing interest from

specialists in various fields of knowledge.

At the same time, when perceiving advertising, usually no one thinks about

that bad advertising is not so much the fault of the advertiser or

distributor of advertising, how much its manufacturer, developer.

Consumers tend to scold the advertiser or the media

information, although often they are not to blame for bad advertising. But his mistake is that he did not prevent the publication of bad advertising, he agreed with the ideas that the developers suggested or imposed on him.

Increasing the effectiveness of advertising, its psychological impact

is one of the urgent tasks, and there are still many unused

reserves and opportunities.

RADIO AND TELEVISION

Radio

Such influence is carried out by broadcasting special radio and television programs through military and civilian radio and television transmitters, as well as by entering the enemy’s combat control networks and communication channels through military (ship) radio facilities. This form of psychological warfare allows you to quickly and effectively cover mass audiences within the radio or television reception radius of a particular station.

Radio broadcasting in the interests of psychological warfare is the use of the broad capabilities of numerous radio stations to influence large audiences of enemy troops and populations. No other media can match radio in terms of audience reach. Now about 80 countries of the world carry out radio broadcasting abroad.

Along with the psychological impact through radio broadcasting, it also has weaknesses and shortcomings in comparison with other forms of psychological warfare, due to:

• the need for readiness of the object of influence to listen to the enemy’s transmission (meanwhile, listening to enemy radio transmissions in a threatening period and wartime, as a rule, is severely persecuted);

• certain limitations of the acoustic perception of information in comparison with printed materials (it is one-time, it is impossible to return to what was said earlier, it is impossible to clarify an incomprehensible word or phrase);

• limitation of radio broadcasting by a strictly defined duration of transmissions;

• the need for the listener to have serviceable receiving equipment;

• the possibility of jamming radio transmissions and direction finding by the enemy of radio transmitting stations in order to suppress them;

• the appearance in the armies of many countries of technical means that make it possible to automatically transfer radio receivers to spare frequencies or switch to secret communication channels.

A television

Television (TV) is one of the most effective forms of psychological warfare. Already, most families in the developed countries of the West and East own more than one TV set. Its role is constantly growing with the expansion of the satellite television network, the advent of digital TV, the connection of TV with Internet computer networks.

Psychological influence through television broadcasting has a number of advantages over other forms of conducting psychological influence.

· Firstly, TV influences the formation of public opinion in a way that no other medium of information can. The effect of presence, synchronicity, involvement of the viewer in the events taking place on the TV screen makes him believe in the veracity of the material presented to him (“it’s better to see once than hear a hundred times”). The power of this effect is so great that TV is capable of misleading the viewer even during a live report. An example is television reports broadcast from the battlefields in the Persian Gulf region in 1991.

· Secondly, with the help of TV it is possible to show specific episodes of hostilities, photographic documents promoting the power and superiority of one’s weapons or demonstrating the atrocities of the enemy. Similarly, a video review of international events can be made, a report about the life of enemy soldiers who have surrendered as prisoners can be broadcast, feature and documentary films and television films, etc. can be shown.

· Thirdly, television allows facsimile transmission of various printed publications, including leaflets, to other countries of the world. To do this, the TV is equipped with a special prefix, from which a tape comes out with information printed on it, transmitted on the waves of the television range. In the United States and Japan, set-top boxes have already been developed that can print information not on tape, but directly on a newsprint sheet of paper on both sides, and this operation takes just a few tens of seconds.

Fourthly, in the event that direct transmission to television receivers (or rebroadcasting of transmissions) is not possible, the population and prisoners of war can watch their recordings using video recorders.

The most favorable object of psychological influence through TV is the civilian population. Modern man is so accustomed to receiving information from television that he cannot do without it even in wartime. It is hardly possible in most states to withdraw television receivers from the population for the period of the war (especially taking into account small-sized transistor televisions). In addition, the military-political leadership of the enemy itself needs television as a powerful and effective means of influencing its own people.

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