The role of the sentence in the text. Text progression. 15- 15-ticket

1. The role of the sentence in the text. Text progression. A sentence can perform a number of text-forming functions (roles). Knowledge of the mechanism of action of these functions helps to understand not only the structure of the text, but also its meaning, to understand how information develops in it, and therefore is of great importance for understanding intratextual connections.

Progression of the text – an increase in its volume and amount of information. A sentence that performs the function of a text progression is usually located at the beginning of the entire text or at the beginning of a microtopic (1-3 sentences). Text information can develop in one or more directions. It depends on how the communicative task is formulated, what is the given text in it: unidirectional or multidirectional. The datum of the text is unidirectional if there is one semantic center (only one datum) in the sentence containing the communicative task. The text information in this case develops in one direction .

This text is multidirectionalif there are several semantic centers in a sentence containing a communicative task. (The information of the text in this case develops in several directions .

2. The structure of the scientific review. .In the content structure of the review, the following components (parts) must be present: 1. Subject of analysis. 2. Relevance of the topic. 3. Summary. 4. Evaluation part. 5. Conclusions.

The first part indicates what the work under review is: graduation project, dissertation … The second part notes the importance of the issues raised in the work, their significance, etc.

In the third part, the reviewer comprehends the content of the read and connects it with the existing knowledge. In the assessment part, the general assessment is usually given at the beginning. Then the merits of the work are noted: novelty, depth of disclosure of the topic, argumentation of the conclusions.

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1. Methods for the development of information in the text. In order to present options for the progression of a text, it is necessary to know about the ways in which information develops in it. Text information can develop in a parallel or chain way. By the method of parallelism and parts of a simple or complex sentence can be connected, representing two or more situations of reality independent of each other. Each of these parts has a semantic center – new information.

In contrast to the parallel method, text information can develop sequentially . In this case, the subsequent new information follows from the previous one : H2 ← from H1; H3 ← from H2, etc. New information in this case develops as if along a chain . This way of developing new information is called chain .

2. Feedback on scientific work. In addition to reviews, abstracts, annotations, reviews of scientific works (articles, collections, monographs) are compiled.

A review is a critical description of some scientific work, an opinion, an assessment about the work. The main purpose of a review is to submit a work for defense or for publication.

A review, unlike a review, is realized through reasoning-explanation. In questions: for what purpose, for what and why a review is written, this genre is approaching a review.

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1. Parallel way of developing information in the text. A parallel way of developing information within a sentence . By the method of parallelism, parts of a simple or complex sentence can be connected, representing two or more situations of reality independent of each other. Each of these parts has a semantic center – new information (H1, H2, etc.).

Parallel way of developing information between sentences . A parallel way of developing information between sentences is such that new doses of information (H1, H2, H3, etc.) exist in them independently of each other, in parallel . At the same time, the phenomenon is characterized from different sides , there are no interdependence relations between the doses of new information. They are united only by the communicative task of the text.

2. The structure of the scientific review. 1. Introductory part (evaluative); 2. Descriptive-evaluative part; 3. Conclusion-assessment – summarizing part.

Lexical and stylistic means of each part: 1 . It is devoted to an important problem, a topical issue … 2. Quite convincingly, convincingly proves, the merit of the author lies in the fact that … 3. In conclusion, the correct conclusion is given, the article is of interest …

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1. Chain method of information development. In contrast to the parallel method, text information can develop sequentially . In this case, the subsequent new information follows from the previous one : H2 ← from H1; H3 ← from H2, etc. New information in this case develops as if along a chain . This way of developing new information is called chain . The phenomenon is described from one side and the situations at the same time turn out to be interconnected.

The logical-grammatical relations of the chain way of developing information can unfold as cause-and-effect or conditional-effect .

To understand their development in the text, it is necessary to understand how they are reflected in the sentence.

2. Summary-conclusions as a text of secondary information. Along with the traditional genres of secondary information – an abstract, annotation – the so-called summary conclusions, or concise conclusions , are used.

The summary-conclusion is not identical to the abstract. First, it is shorter; secondly, due to its minimal size, it remains in memory much longer. The choice of language tools for constructing summary conclusions is subject to the main task of information folding: a minimum of language tools – a maximum of information. Summary-conclusions as a genre of secondary text, unlike reviews and reviews, as a rule, do not contain critical analysis and evaluation. In contrast to the abstract-review, it is much shorter and in this sense approaches the annotation.

Summary-conclusions, revealing the quality of the described subject in several sentences, are close in their function to the function of the advertising text.

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1.Compression as a type of scientific text processing. Compression is the main type of text processing. On the basis of certain operations with the source text, it is possible to build texts of new genres – abstracts, annotations, theses, abstracts, summaries. This requires a clear understanding of the content of the text, an understanding of the semantic connection between the parts of the text.

Text comprehension is the process of translating the meaning of a given text into another form of its consolidation. As a result of understanding, there is a consistent change in the structure of the text in the mind of the reader and the process of mental movement from one element of the text to another.

The main thing is that it can be a process of semantic compression, as a result of which a minitext is formed, which contains the main meaning of the original text. Work on text compression contributes to a deeper understanding of it and is necessary when compiling abstracts, abstracts, annotations, reviews, as well as term papers and theses. To do this, you need to be able to highlight the main and secondary information, be able to reproduce the information of the text according to the plan in writing.

2. The concept of sub-styles of scientific style. The scientific style is one of the functional styles of the literary language that serves the field of science. The difference between the scientific and all other styles of speech is that it can be divided into four sub-styles: Proper-scientific. Scientific and educational. Popular scientific. Scientific and technical.

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1. Types and rules of compression of the source text. Compression (compression) is based on the disclosure of the semantic structure of the source text and the allocation of basic information in it. Only that text will be truly comprehended if its main content can be expressed in an arbitrarily concise form.

The text created as a result of compression, in relation to the original text, is called secondary. There are secondary texts of varying degrees of compression. Text compression is based on three main rules: 1. Careful reading of the text and highlighting key words and sentences. Key words are words that contain the main meaning of the statement. To find the key element of the text, you need to know the structure of the paragraph. 2. Writing secondary text. To identify their positions, the author of the secondary text in relation to the original source uses special standard expressions (clichés), the choice of which reveals and reflects the structure of the source text. and phrases, or words with a generalized-specific meaning (they must be determined independently) to briefly convey the main content of paragraphs or parts of the text.

2. Actually scientific sub-style of scientific style. . The addressee of this style is a scientist, a specialist. The purpose of the style can be called the identification and description of new facts, patterns, discoveries. Characteristic for dissertations, monographs, abstracts, scientific articles, scientific reports, abstracts, scientific reviews, etc. Example: “The rhythm of expressive speech in no language and under no circumstances can be identical to the rhythmic organization of neutral speech.

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1. Plan as a form of writing a scientific text. Types of plans. A plan is the shortest type of record. It only lists the issues covered in the speech, in the book.

When drawing up a plan, it is necessary to divide the text into parts and catch the connection between these parts. A question is posed for each part (interrogative plan) or a title is given in the form of a short nominal sentence ( name plan ). If the sentences are taken from the text, the plan is called quotation . When formulating headings, it is necessary to consider the content of each component, to find its main idea. When drawing up a complex plan, the text is divided into large parts, and each part is divided into smaller ones.

2. Scientific and educational sub-style of the beginning style. Works in this style are addressed to future specialists and students in order to educate, describe the facts necessary to master the material, therefore the facts stated in the text and examples are typical. Mandatory is the description “from general to particular”, strict classification, active introduction and use of special terms. Typical for textbooks, tutorials, lectures, etc.

Example: “ Botany is the science of plants. The name of this science comes from the Greek word “botani”, which means “green, herb, plant”

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1. Abstracts, types of abstracts in the field of science. A thesis , by definition, is a proposition whose truth must be proven. Abstracts are one of the most complex types of abbreviations; they are briefly formulated main provisions of a paragraph, text of a lecture, report. The number of abstracts coincides with the number of informative text centers.

Abstracts are secondary and original. Secondary abstracts are written in order to highlight the main information of a source, for example, a scientific article, textbook or monograph. Such theses are necessary for scientific work of students and graduate students.

The original abstracts are written as the primary text for the upcoming presentation at the seminar, conference or congress. Such abstracts are published in special collections.

2. Popular scientific sub-style of scientific style is one of the stylistic and speech varieties of scientific. funkt. style, allocated (in comparison with the actual scientific) on the basis of the implementation of “additional” tasks of communication – the need for “translation” of a special scientific. information into the language of non-special knowledge, namely, the tasks of popularizing scientific. knowledge for a wide audience.

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1. Taking notes as a form of writing a scientific text. A summary is an abbreviated record of information. The abstract should reflect the main provisions of the text, which, if necessary, are supplemented, argued, and briefly illustrated with the most striking examples. Meanwhile, the concept of abstract implies the combination of a plan, extracts, theses, as well as the ability to draw up quotations – accurate, verbatim excerpts from the text. The abstract is easier and faster to digest if headings, examples, terms, and the most important information are highlighted in a different color. It is recommended to use various methods of underlining, highlighting with a frame, etc.

2. The concept of the culture of speech. The culture of speech is the possession of the norms of the literary language in oral and written form. Initially, the concept of “literary norm” was considered the central concept of this section of linguistics, and questions of the correctness of speech were the only object of study.

At present, the concept of “culture of speech” includes two stages of mastering the literary language: 1) correctness of speech (the ability to speak and write correctly), 2) speech skills (the ability to use language means in accordance with the goals and conditions of communication). The correctness of speech is the observance of the norms of the literary language. At the same time, the assessment of the variants of the norm is categorical and definite: right – wrong, in Russian – not in Russian, permissible – unacceptable, both are acceptable. Speech skill , in contrast to the correctness of speech, is not only a mandatory adherence to the norms of the literary language, but also the ability to choose from the options the most accurate, relevant, expressive, etc.

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1. Types of abstracts. A planned outline is easy to obtain using a pre-made work plan. In this case, the plan is either specially drawn up for writing a summary, or a previously compiled one is used as an independent entry. Each question of the plan in such a record is answered by a certain part of the abstract.

A textual summary is a summary created mainly from fragments of the original – quotes. Textual extracts here are connected with each other by a chain of logical transitions, they can be provided with a plan and include separate theses in the presentation of the outliner or the author.

A free abstract combines extracts, quotations, sometimes theses; part of his text may be provided with a plan.

A free abstract requires the ability to independently clearly and concisely formulate the main provisions, which requires a deep understanding of the material, a large and active vocabulary.

2. The concept of speech etiquette. Speech etiquette is a system of requirements (rules, norms) that explain to us how to establish, maintain and break contact with another person in a certain situation. The norms of speech etiquette are very diverse, each country has its own characteristics of the culture of communication. Speech etiquette is a system of rules. It may seem strange why you need to develop special rules of communication, and then stick to them or break them. And yet, speech etiquette is closely related to the practice of communication, its elements are present in every conversation. Compliance with the rules of speech etiquette will help you correctly convey your thoughts to the interlocutor, quickly reach mutual understanding with him.

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1. Abbreviated notation of words in a scientific work. In dissertations, abbreviations are often found in word formation. This is a truncation of a word, as well as a part of a word or a whole word formed by such a truncation *. Such an abbreviated notation of words is used here in order to reduce the volume of the text, which is due to the desire to give maximum information in its minimum volume. When abbreviating words, three main methods are used: 1. only the first (initial) letter of the word is left (year – year); 2. part of the word is left, the ending and suffix are discarded (Soviet – owl.); words that are replaced by a hyphen (university – un-t). When making an abbreviation, you need to keep in mind that the abbreviation must end in a consonant and should not end in a vowel (if it is not the initial letter in the word), in the letter “y”, into soft and hard signs. The following types of abbreviations are found in a scientific text: 1. letter abbreviations; 2. compound words; 3. conditional graphic abbreviations by the initial letters of the word; 4 conditional graphic abbreviations by parts of the word and initial letters.

2. Formulas of speech etiquette. Formulas of speech etiquette are certain words, phrases and set expressions used for three stages of conversation:

  • the beginning of the conversation : (greeting/acquaintance) Any conversation, as a rule, begins with a greeting, it can be verbal and non-verbal.
  • main part : After the greeting, the conversation begins. Speech etiquette provides for three main types of situations in which various speech formulas of communication are used: solemn, mournful and work situations.
  • final part of the conversation : At the end of the conversation, they use formulas for ending communication, parting. These formulas are expressed in the form of wishes (all the best, all the best, goodbye), hopes for further meetings (see you tomorrow, I hope to see you soon, we’ll call you), or doubts about further meetings (goodbye, do not remember dashingly).

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