The role and organization of the operation of the operational dispatch service in the energy sector of industrial production.

1. In each AO-energo (energy system), unified energy system (UES), Unified Energy System (UPS of Russia), round-the-clock dispatch control of the coordinated operation of power plants, electric and heat networks, the tasks of which are:

· development and maintenance of operating modes of power plants, networks and power systems that provide the specified conditions for power supply to consumers;

planning and preparation of repair work;

Ensuring the sustainability of energy systems;

meeting the requirements for the quality of electrical energy and heat;

· Ensuring the efficiency of the operation of energy systems and the rational use of energy resources, subject to consumption regimes;

· prevention and elimination of technological disturbances in the production, transformation, transmission and distribution of electrical energy and heat.

2. At each power facility (power plant, electrical network, heating network), round-the-clock operational management of equipment should be organized, the tasks of which are:

maintaining the required mode of operation;

production of switching, starts and stops;

localization of accidents and restoration of the operating mode;

preparation for the production of repair work.

3. Operational dispatch control should be organized according to a hierarchical structure, providing for the distribution of operational control and management functions between individual levels, as well as the subordination of lower levels of control to higher ones.

4. The functions of dispatching control must be performed by:

in UES – central dispatching control (CDU UES of Russia);

in the IPS – unified dispatch control (ODC);

in the power system – the central dispatching service (CDS);

in the electrical network – the operational dispatch service of this network;

in the heating network – the dispatching service of this network.

5. For each dispatcher level, two categories of equipment and facilities control should be established – operational control and operational maintenance.

6. The operational control of the dispatcher should include equipment, heat pipelines, power lines, burdock protection devices, equipment for emergency and regime automation systems, dispatch and technological control facilities, operations with which require coordination of the actions of subordinate operational dispatch personnel and coordinated changes at several objects of different operational subordination.

Operations with the specified equipment and devices must be carried out under the guidance of the dispatcher.

7. The operational control of the dispatcher should include equipment, heat pipelines, power lines, relay protection devices, equipment for emergency and regime automation systems, dispatch and technological control facilities, operational information systems, the state and mode of which affect the available capacity and reserve of power plants and power systems in general, the mode and reliability of networks, as well as the setting of emergency automation.

Operations with the specified equipment and devices must be carried out with the permission of the dispatcher.

8. All power lines, heat pipelines, equipment and devices of power plants and networks must be distributed according to the levels of dispatch control.

Lists of power transmission lines, heat pipelines, equipment and devices that are in the operational control or operational management of power facility managers or AO-energy should be drawn up taking into account the decisions of the higher operational dispatch control body and approved by the technical manager of this power facility or AO-energo.

9. Relationships between personnel at various levels of operational and dispatch control should be regulated by the relevant standard provisions and contracts for the participation of owners of power facilities in parallel work with the UES of Russia. Evasion from the conclusion of contracts is not allowed. Disputable issues arising from the conclusion of contracts must be resolved in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation.

10. Operational dispatch control should be carried out from control rooms and control panels equipped with dispatch and technological control facilities and control systems, as well as completed with operational diagrams.

11. Each AO-energo should develop instructions for operational dispatch control, operational negotiations and records, production of switching and elimination of emergency modes, taking into account the specifics and structural features of the power system.

All operational negotiations, operational dispatch documentation at all levels of dispatch control must be conducted using a single generally accepted terminology, standard orders, messages and records.

7. ORGANIZATION OF ENERGY ACCOUNTING AT INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES.

Industrial enterprises keep records of various types of fuel, electricity, steam, hot water, compressed air, oxygen, process water and other energy sources.

Accounting for solid fuel supplied to the plant is carried out by weighing it on a wagon scale. The fuel released from the warehouse to the shops-consumers is weighed on trolley scales. When fuel is supplied to the furnaces of boilers (steam generators) and furnaces, it is weighed on wagon or wagon scales. Accounting for the fuel consumed by units and installations is carried out in a shift, daily monthly (quarterly) section. It is taken into account both in conditional and in kind terms. The determination of the calorific value, moisture content and ash content of the fuel must be carried out using a calorimetric bomb. Gaseous fuels are metered using gas meters installed on gas pipelines, and liquid fuels are metered using fuel oil meters or service tanks installed in fuel oil storage facilities and at large consumers.

Accounting for active and reactive electricity is carried out separately using the appropriate meters. The main objects of accounting are:

-electricity generation at industrial thermal power plants;

– consumption of high voltage energy by factory substations and power receivers;

– electricity supply from substation buses;

– electricity consumption by workshops, sections and power receivers;

– DC power generation.

Electricity metering from the side (from the EPS) is carried out by installing meters at the ends of the feeders of the high or low side.

Intra-factory metering of electricity consumption should provide:

1) separate accounting of energy for technological purposes and lighting;

2) the consumption of active and reactive electricity by each shop;

3) individual accounting of energy consumption by large power receivers;

4) group accounting of energy consumption by small consumers.

In addition to stationary electricity metering devices, portable sets of devices are used (for periodic measurements).

Steam accounting is carried out using steam meters, which are installed together with pressure gauges and thermometers. Accounting for steam generation in the boiler house is carried out for each boiler or for the boiler house as a whole. Individual accounting of steam consumption should be carried out for large units, and group accounting – for small consumers.

Accounting for hot water and condensate is carried out using water meters and thermometers.

Compressed air is taken into account using air meters, at the installation points of which manometers and thermometers are installed. Accounting for the production of compressed air must be kept for each compressor separately. In workshops that are large consumers, separate accounting should be carried out.

The consumption of technical water is taken into account by water meters, which are installed at all pumping stations, as well as at the inputs to all workshops that are large water consumers.

In addition to accounting for the generation and consumption of fuel and energy (energy carriers), it is necessary to take into account the electrical, thermal, air and gas load of the enterprise. These loads are accounted for by measuring instruments installed at generating and converting installations, substations, as well as thermal and gas inputs of the enterprise. This accounting is carried out either continuously with the help of self-recording instruments, or periodically – by recording the readings of indicating instruments after a certain period of time. The data of these accounts are used to build the actual graphs of the enterprise’s load for calendar periods of any duration (daily, monthly, quarterly, annual).

In the organization of energy accounting, the development of documentation and accounting rules plays an important role. At enterprises, as well as at power plants, primary and secondary documentation is compiled, which reflects the operation of equipment and personnel, the operation of not only generating plants, but also power receivers in production shops.

8. ORGANIZATION OF OPERATION AT TPP

The organization of equipment maintenance is aimed at ensuring maximum reliability and efficiency of each unit and the power plant as a whole.

The objects of operational maintenance at the CHPP are the main and auxiliary equipment of the heat engineering and electrical parts. At the same time, much attention is paid to turbogenerators and steam generators (boiler units).

Certain prerequisites underlie the organization of maintenance. These include:

– normalization of parameters and primary indicators of equipment operation;

– equipping the equipment with control and measuring devices and means of automatic control, communication and signaling;

– organization of energy accounting and control;

– definition of the duties of each employee with the appropriate organization of labor and wages;

– development of rules for maintaining technical rules for operating documentation.

Maintenance functions include:

– start and stop of the unit;

– periodic inspection of automation equipment;

– monitoring the state of equipment and current energy control;

– regulation of the process;

– maintenance of equipment;

– maintenance of technical documentation.

The start-up and shutdown of complex TPP units (steam generators, turbine units, blocks) are always associated with additional costs and energy losses. In this case, uneven thermal stresses and expansions occur in individual parts and assemblies of the equipment, which can lead to damage. Therefore, it is necessary to observe a strictly established sequence of operations in time and conditions that provide a minimum of starting energy losses.

Power units at TPPs are launched as a single unit. The start of the boiler-turbine block has its own characteristics compared to the separate start-up of the steam generator and turbine. The start-up mode must be designed in such a way that thermal and mechanical stresses in individual units of the equipment do not go beyond the permissible limits.

When the units are started, the temperature difference in individual parts of the turbine is controlled. This control is made by regulating the temperature of the steam. Such a start is called a sliding steam start. It starts with the kindling of the steam generator. The type of steam generator affects the start-up mode of the units (drum, direct-flow). The start-up and shutdown of the main and auxiliary equipment of the TPP is carried out on the basis of operating instructions.

The functions of operational maintenance include systematic monitoring of the condition of the main and auxiliary equipment. The current energy control is divided into continuous and periodic.

The objects of continuous monitoring are energy parameters and primary indicators of processes. These include: 1) parameters of supplied energy (steam pressure and temperature in front of turbines, deaerators, reduction-cooling and heating plants); 2) parameters of generated or converted energy (steam pressure and temperature behind steam generators, reduction-cooling units, turbine extractions and counterpressures; generator alternating current voltage and frequency); 3) parameters of the environment (temperature of the cooling water of condensers and turbines); 4) input power indicators (hourly fuel consumption for steam generators, hourly steam consumption for turbines);

The objects of periodic energy monitoring are indicators determined on the basis of sampling and analysis: composition, calorific value, ash content and moisture content of the fuel; the content of carbon monoxide in slag and entrainment; the content of salts and acids in the feed water of steam generators; the content of impurities in the oil.

Regulation of processes at TPP units is carried out in accordance with the specified load and energy parameters. The efficiency of the equipment depends to a large extent on it.

Organization of operation is provided by technical rules and relevant documentation. The technical operation rules (PTE) provide for equipping the equipment with control and measuring devices, communication and signaling facilities, as well as the general procedure for the operational maintenance of the units. On the basis of these rules, production instructions for the maintenance of the main and auxiliary equipment of TPPs are developed. These instructions regulate the rights and obligations of the operating personnel. Special instructions are drawn up for starting and stopping equipment, testing, switching in electrical circuits, personnel behavior in emergency cases, and the like.

The organization of operation is closely related to the automation of process control. Technological processes are controlled by influencing the operating parameters of the equipment (power, flow, pressure, and so on). Automation of the management of these processes can have a different degree of centralization.

When automating individual links or stages of the TPP technological process, autonomous systems (subsystems) are used. They are not combined into a common process control system. Autonomous systems do not communicate with each other and a single coordinating center. Such technological management is decentralized.

Centralized control of technological processes is associated with full (complex) automation and the use of control computers (CCMs). These machines are the coordinating center of a unified technological control system. Such management allows you to organize the operation of equipment at a high level. When using centralized systems, their high reliability must be ensured. Insufficient reliability of such systems can severely limit their application.

To automate the control of technological processes of thermal power plants, a system intermediate between centralized and decentralized can also be used.

TPPs create automated process control systems (APCS), which include several subsystems. These subsystems include: 1) automatic protection; 2) automatic control; 3) automatic regulation; 4) logical control.

Automatic control is carried out over the operation of the equipment and the course of the technological process. Means of automatic remote control of actuators (gate valves, gate valves, electric motors, and so on) are used. Widespread use finds emergency signaling of malfunctions in the operation of equipment. Automatic control over the parameters and quality indicators of the operation of the main equipment and power units of TPPs makes it possible to conduct the technological process reliably and economically. The composition of objects and points of automatic control of parameters and quality indicators depends on the type and capacity of the equipment and the degree of process automation. As the degree of automation increases, the number of control points increases. This increase is mainly due to automatic signaling points.

Automatic control at thermal power plants is the most important part of automation, ensuring the reliability and efficiency of equipment operation. The degree of automation of its regulation in normal operating conditions is quite high.

The management of technological processes of TPP involves the use of logical control tools with electronic computers. These tools are mainly intended for automation of process control of power units and the main equipment of power plants with cross connections. Automation of the process of technological management is based on the introduction of information systems and control computers (CCMs).

9, 11 ORGANIZATION OF MAINTENANCE OF ELECTRIC AND HEAT NETWORKS

Operational maintenance of thermal and electrical networks is carried out in accordance with the current rules of technical operation. Reliable and economical operation, as well as rational distribution of thermal energy is achieved through: development and regulation of thermal and hydraulic modes of the heat supply system; accounting and control of its qualitative and quantitative indicators; control over the operation of subscriber inputs; rational organization of maintenance and repair.

Functions of operational maintenance of thermal networks: systematic monitoring of the technical condition of networks and subscriber inputs; prevention of external and internal corrosion of heat pipelines; operational control of coolant parameters; accounting for distributed heat and heat carrier flow; maintenance of technical documentation. Operational maintenance is carried out by areas of operation or sections of heating networks. Monitoring of the operating mode of heating networks, turning on and off consumer installations, switching in the network is carried out by the duty personnel of the network area.

Reliable and economical operation of power networks is achieved through: regular audits and inspections of electrical lines and substations; continuous monitoring of the operational state of power lines, cable networks, substations, inputs; implementation of protective equipment and so on.

Electric networks are characterized by a close relationship between operational and maintenance and repair services.

The main functions of operational personnel are: management of the operating modes of power networks; various kinds of switching liquidation of accidents.

The functions of operational maintenance include: inspection of overhead power lines; selective check of the condition of wires and cables in the clamps; inspection of cable lines; measurement at various points of the network of the load of cable lines and voltage; cable heating temperature check; recharging filters and desiccants, and the like.

Depending on the factors – the density of networks in the service area, geographical and climatic conditions, the availability of communications, transport communications, the structure of the administrative division – the optimal variant of repair and maintenance is selected. Repair and maintenance of electrical networks can be carried out centrally, decentralized and in a mixed way.

Centralized service is carried out by mobile teams. Decentralized method involves repair and maintenance

electric lines and substations by the personnel assigned to them. With the mixed method, operational maintenance is carried out by operational personnel within its working area, and repair maintenance is carried out by personnel of central or industrial repair bases. At present, the centralized method of repair and maintenance of electrical networks is predominant.

Automation of the control system of electrical networks is carried out in order to increase the reliability of power supply, maintain voltage at the interfaces of the electrical network within the limits of GOST, remote control of substations, turn off and turn on equipment. Programming machines and computers are being introduced into networks. For large substations, a system has been developed that detects the appearance and disappearance of warning signals, turns off and on switches. This system also solves a number of other tasks related to the management of the operation of electrical networks.

Software automata are used to control district and distribution substations with fairly simple circuits and a limited range of automatic control and monitoring tasks.

Small computers are used: for registration and display of operational information; for technological control; operational management and so on.

10, 12 ORGANIZATION OF ENERGY ACCOUNTING IN ELECTRIC AND HEAT NETWORKS

Power plants measure the amount of fuel, electricity, steam and water.

At thermal power plants, special attention is paid to fuel metering. The fuel delivered to the station is weighed on a wagon scale and recorded in the weight book, which is kept separately for each of its types. The quality of the fuel during shipment is determined by the quality inspection, and at power plants – by the chemical laboratory. The results of the analysis are recorded in special acts. The supply of fuel to the bunker of the boiler house is reflected in the expense report based on the readings of automatic scales. Accounting for gas and fuel oil consumption is carried out by gas meters and fuel oil meters (or service tanks).

Electricity generation is determined by the sum of the meters of all generators. Accounting for steam and water is carried out by flowmeters with totalizing counters. Steam generation by steam generators is taken into account by steam meters on the main steam pipelines. The amount of released thermal energy is determined by registering and summing flow meters, taking into account the parameters of heat carriers determined by registering pressure gauges and thermometers.

Steam and water parameters (pressure and temperature) are determined using recording instruments (pressure gauges, thermometers).

Electricity consumption for the plant’s own needs is accounted by the meters separately for the main units and mechanisms: storage, supply and preparation of fuel (crushing, fuel – supply, etc.); boiler shop (mills, smoke exhausters, fans, feed pumps, chemical water treatment, ash removal, etc.);

turbine shop (circulation and condensate pumps); electrical shop (cooling of transformers, hydrogen cooling of generators); heat supply (network and boiler pumps); general station expenses (technical water pumps, etc.).

For the normal operation of heating networks, control and accounting should be organized: pressure and temperature of the coolant, the amount of heat (water) consumed, the temperature of the outside air in heated rooms.

The power grids take into account: electricity supplied to the network, energy released by the subscriber; energy from block – stations of enterprises; purchased energy from other EPS; energy sold to other EPS.

Accounting data at TPPs and networks serve as the basis for technical reporting: primary – in the form of daily statements of units, shift logs, and so on, and secondary – generalized reporting for the day, month, year.

In the daily statements of the units, the readings of the instruments are entered at a fixed frequency (once per hour, 4 hours, shift), which are necessary to control the operation of equipment and personnel. These lists also record all the switching, starts, stops of the units, malfunctions in the operation of the equipment. Shift logs keep records of received operational indications and orders, the time of individual operations for the operation and repair of equipment, and so on.

Primary documentation is used to compile secondary documentation. The latter is necessary for the analysis of operation and assessment of the fulfillment of planned targets according to technical and economic indicators.

On the basis of secondary documentation (daily statements), a monthly technical report on the operation of power plants and networks is compiled, which reflects general information, operational data, and equipment utilization indicators.

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