The relevance of the research problem.

Introductory section.

The introductory section of the program has its own internal structure, which is characterized by an organic relationship and sequence of all its constituent elements:

1) Characteristics of the research problem.

2) The urgency of the problem.

3) Problematic situation.

4) The level of scientific development.

5) Theoretical object of study.

6) Empirical object of research.

7) Subject of research.

8) The purpose of sociological research.

9) Tasks of sociological research.

10) Theoretical substantiation of the research problem.

11) Empirical substantiation of the research problem.

12) Scientific novelty of sociological research.

13) The practical significance of sociological research.

1. Characteristics of the research problem.

In any field of scientific knowledge in sociological practice, there is a certain set of social problems that significantly change certain areas of society’s life and, as a rule, act as a specific sociological study.

Thus, in the scientific sociological literature, social problems are defined as a discrepancy between the actual and desired state of social relations as mechanisms for the relationship and interaction between social communities, the individual and society, social actions and mass behavior, which hinders the development of the individual, social groups and communities, society as a whole. .[25] Also, a social problem is an objectively arisen contradiction between the needs, interests, forms of behavior and activities of individuals and social groups and the possibilities for their satisfaction that society has at this stage of its functioning and development.[26]

Thus, social contradiction is the presence of individuals, social groups, communities and society as a whole, which are in internal unity and determine the existence of each other, insufficient and unequal access to objects and ways to satisfy their needs in the presence of opposite, mutually exclusive interests.[27 ] More definitions.

In the scientific literature and practice of sociological research, there are many areas of problems that can be classified on various grounds. Classification is a system of grouping objects, both social and natural reality, in accordance with their common features.[28] More definitions

In sociological research, one can say that social problems can be classified according to the following grounds and. thus, highlight a certain typology of social problems.

Typology of social problems by the nature of their occurrence:

natural social problems – these are problems that arise as a result of really existing contradictions within society and social groups, regardless of the state of consciousness of people, on the nature of their perception of reality, i.e. objectively;[29]

artificial social problems – these are problems that arise in the mind of a person, determining the nature of his behavior, and do not exist objectively, in isolation from his consciousness;[30]

mixed social problems – these are problems that are based on real contradictions that exist within society and social groups, that is, objectively existing problems that arise outside the consciousness of the subject of behavior, but which are subjectively perceived by him and give rise to secondary ones in his mind, artificial problems;[31]

Thus our social problem is a mixed social problem, since contradictions that arise in society based on the natural gender difference of its members objectively affect the relationship of individuals in social groups, however, these problems are also reflected in the minds of the subjects of interaction, as a result creating artificial problems in it.

Typology of social problems according to the level of their manifestation:

individual social problems are characterized by the emergence of social contradictions between individuals in different social groups and societies that arise in the course of their everyday life. Such social problems have a short-term nature of their impact on the life of society as a whole and affect the nature of interpersonal relationships;

institutional social problems are problems that arise as a result of significant violations of traditionally functional ties between various social institutions. They have a fairly wide range of their manifestation in the life of society and social groups, a longer period of existence, affect the nature of relations between institutions and require very significant efforts from the state and society to eliminate them;

general social problems are characterized by the scale of the social changes that they bring to the life of society, a long period of their existence, a change in the entire nature of social relations;

By the level of their manifestation, one can also single out global social problems , which entered the structure of scientific knowledge only at the end of the 60s. 20th century These problems are characterized by those global contradictions that are caused by social changes that threaten the entire human community and the entire planet as a whole.

Global problems have their own internal structure. They are divided into:

intersocial global problems that have a global level of manifestation and form those social contradictions that affect the life of humanity as a whole and the planet (arms race, local military conflicts, terrorist movements, drug trafficking, national contradictions);

socio-natural global problems , such as environmental pollution, the emergence of GMOs, resource depletion, a population explosion, etc.;

social global problems that arise between individuals and society as a whole (problems of education, morality, culture, health, education, values).

Social problems are also divided by scale:

interstate social problems;

state social problems;

regional social problems;

village;

rural , etc.

Our social problem has a state level of its manifestation….

All social problems are divided into long-term and short-term. Our social problem belongs to the long-term…….

According to the purpose of the study, social problems are divided into:

epistemological social problems reflect social contradictions, knowledge of which always exists in society at this stage of its functioning and development, but society does not have ways, methods to reduce the negative consequences of these problems;

substantive social problems reflect social contradictions that always underlie the so-called “social order”, which sociologists receive from one or another customer to conduct a study of a social phenomenon.

According to the level of influence, social problems are divided into:

– one- dimensional , reflecting those social contradictions that change the qualitative characteristics of the life of society and manifest themselves in one of its spheres;

systemic social problems reflect social contradictions that change the qualitative characteristics of society as a whole and the nature of social relations;

functional social problems reflect the violation of the functions and relationships between individual subsystems in the life of society

There are three accepted criteria for acquiring a social status problem in the sociological literature:

mass manifestation . The problem is social insofar as it affects the life of groups of people or society as a whole. This means that the contradictions underlying it are due to the existing relations between people and the solution of this problem is impossible without changing these relations within the framework of a social group or society.[32]

deviation from the social background ………….

the degree of influence on the life of society . The greater the number of spheres of people’s life, the relations between them are negatively affected by a social problem, the higher its significance, the stronger its negative impact on the development of society.[33]

The relevance of the research problem.

The relevance of the research problem reflects the social significance of the problem, which manifests itself at three main levels:

– society as a whole;

– social group;

– empirical object.

3. Problem situation.

The social situation is a combination of the conditions and circumstances of the life of society, creating in it a certain system of social (in the broad sense) relations. A social situation that gives rise to a certain problem in the life of society is called a problematic social situation. Thus, a problematic social situation is a system of social relations in society that exists under certain conditions and circumstances, creating conflicting interests and interactions between individuals and social groups and giving rise to a specific problem of their life activity.[34]

Also , a problematic situation can be defined as an unstable state of social reality, in which a system of social relations is formed, reflecting the contradictions of interests of interacting individuals and social groups.[35]

Any problem situation always reflects the dissonance between various social factors that act as the driving force behind the development of any society and determine certain levels of social change, the state of which contributes to the formation of the prerequisites for the emergence of a problem situation in the life of society.

There are two types of social factors:

general social – spiritual, economic, political, social factors that form the basis of the life of any society. The level of their interaction has a decisive influence on all social processes in their activity and unity;

4. – specific social factors reflect the personal characteristics of individuals and social groups that influence their behavior and activities (status, evaluation, psychological characteristics
The level of scientific development.

The level of scientific development of the problem of sociological research is the scale and depth of existing knowledge, which reflect the state of the social phenomenon under study and the factors of its formation.

Any social problem is characterized by the existence of an interdisciplinary approach to its study and research. This is due to the fact that any social problem accumulates in itself various aspects of its influence and impact on the life of society and is of scientific and practical interest in various fields of knowledge, each of which singles out a specific subject area, solving certain problems, and achieves the goal of the study.

Thus, when analyzing the scientific theories characteristic of our social problem, we have identified certain scientific approaches that are reflected in such sources…….

5. Theoretical object of study.

The theoretical object of research is an obligatory element of the program of sociological research and represents a specific area of social reality, which has the character of a holistic phenomenon and is included in the process of cognition.[36]

A holistic social phenomenon is characterized by:

– the isolation of its existence in the life of society;

– ability to self-development;

– the presence of a system of interconnected elements.

Therefore, our social contradiction acts as a theoretical object, i.e. this social problem, which acts as a holistic social phenomenon. Interrelated concepts act as interconnected elements in this theoretical object.

6. Empirical object of study.

The empirical object of sociological research is a set of individuals, social groups, social communities, social organizations that act as carriers of the research problem.

As practice shows, there are two types of empirical research object:

simple reflects the views, judgments, opinions of individuals and social groups that they express in the process of conducting a sociological study;

complexly structured reflects the views, judgments, opinions of respondents who belong to different social groups, and the object is selected only when it is necessary to conduct a comparative analysis of these opinions, judgments, etc.

Therefore, the choice depends on the goals, objectives, hypotheses and specifics of the research problem.

Any empirical object has its own universal features, which are:

– gender and age characteristics;

– status;

– professional;

– regional

– temporary, etc.

However, there are other signs of an empirical object:

– education;

– marital status;

– living conditions;

– financial situation, etc.

MSU students will act as our empirical object………………

7. Subject of research.

The subject of sociological research is the essential properties of the theoretical object of research, which determine the emergence of a social problem within its framework.[37]

There are two types of the subject of sociological research:

– the subject of sociological research located inside the object of sociological research;

– the subject of sociological research, which is outside the object of research.

There is also a phenomenon in which the subject of sociological research is both inside the object of research and outside it.

Thus, the subject of our sociological research is the dependence of career growth on gender differentiation.

8. Purpose of sociological research.

The purpose of sociological research is the specific content of the knowledge that will be obtained as a result of the research formulated in the form of an imperative sentence.[38] It is also the end result of scientific activity aimed at obtaining new scientific knowledge about the current state of the studied social phenomenon.[39]

Criteria for formulating the purpose of the study:

– the content of the research goal is the formulation of the result of the research in the form of assumed knowledge, and not the research process;

– the content of the purpose of the study is directly determined by the topic of the study.[40]

There are three types of the purpose of sociological research, depending on the type of this research:

– in a descriptive sociological study, the purpose of the study is a description of the characteristic properties and features of the object of study, which is subject to study;

– in descriptive and explanatory sociological research, the purpose of the research is to identify those states and properties of the subject of research that depend on changes in the states and properties of the research object;

– in explanatory sociological research, the goal of the research is……………………….

9. Tasks of sociological research.

The tasks of sociological research are the names of actions formulated in the form of imperative sentences aimed at achieving particular research results, for which theoretical, methodological, methodological and analytical means are used, and the achievement of which gives a general result – the goal of the study.[41]

The tasks of sociological research also represent a scientifically substantiated system of theoretical, methodological, methodological, analytical and organizational procedures, the implementation of which is aimed at achieving the goal of this sociological research.

In the sociological scientific literature and in the practice of sociological research, there are four main types of sociological research tasks:

1) Theoretical and methodological tasks are the names of actions formulated in the form of imperative sentences aimed at substantiating the theoretical approach, highlighting a system of concepts and cause-and-effect relationships that allow describing and explaining the state and nature of the relationship of the studied phenomena.[42] Necessary procedures:

– substantiate a theoretical approach that allows describing and explaining the state and nature of the relationship of the studied phenomena;

– within the framework of the chosen theoretical approach, to single out and define a system of concepts, the use of which will make it possible to describe and explain the state and nature of the relationship of the phenomena under study;

– based on the selected system of concepts, to determine cause-and-effect relationships within the framework of these theories, the use of which will explain the nature of the relationship of the studied phenomena.[43]

2) Theoretical and methodological tasks are the names of actions formulated in the form of imperative sentences aimed at substantiating indicators, methods, measurement tools and procedures for their use, allowing to assess the state and nature of the relationship of the studied phenomena. Necessary procedures:

– substantiate the system of indicators for assessing the state and nature of the relationship of the studied phenomena;

– to substantiate methods for measuring indicators to assess the state and nature of the relationship of the studied phenomena;

– within the framework of the chosen methods, determine the measurement tools necessary to assess the indicators of the state and the nature of the relationship of the studied phenomena.[44]

3) Analytical tasks are the names of actions formulated in the form of an imperative sentence aimed at substantiating the methods of processing and analysis that must be used when summarizing primary data to assess the state and nature of the relationship of the phenomena under study. Necessary procedures:

– substantiate the methods of processing and analysis that must be used when summarizing primary data to assess the state of the phenomena under study;

– to substantiate the methods of analysis of primary data that must be used in assessing the nature of the relationship between the studied phenomena.[45]

4) Meaningful tasks are the names of actions formulated in the form of an imperative sentence aimed at obtaining knowledge about the state of the properties of the phenomena under study and the nature of their relationship. Necessary procedures:

– to appreciate the state of the studied phenomena in the conditions of this problematic situation;

– evaluate the nature of the relationship between the states of the phenomena under study in the conditions of this problem situation.[46]

Determine what guides young people when choosing a profession;

Determine which career strategies young people choose, and which girls.

Reveal the importance of gender when applying for a job.

Find out if there is a gender stereotype in the formation of a career.

To determine the attitude of young people towards ……

10. Theoretical substantiation of sociological research.

This element is mandatory in the program of sociological research and represents the names of those specific theories that will be used in the theoretical description and explanation of the state of the object and subject of research.[47]

Due to this, sociologists always turn to the analysis and generalization of existing scientific knowledge at two levels:

– the level of general sociological theories (general theories);

– theories of the middle level (special and sectoral sociological theories).

1) general theories are capable of covering by their description and explanation the widest set of phenomena of social reality and operate with concepts of the most abstract level.[48] The object is always social phenomena, social processes, patterns of the life of society as a single and integral social organism. The subject matter is those social contradictions. Which cause significant changes in the life of society as a whole and radically change the nature of social relations. Therefore, these theories always act as the theoretical foundation of macrosociology and have a set of basic universal theories, which include:

– the theory of structural functionalism (O.Comte, G.Spencer, E.Durheim, M.Weber, R.Merton, T.Parsons);

– the theory of symbolic interactionalism (J. Mead, G. Bloomer, G. Stone, A. Strauss);

– the theory of social action (T. Parsons);

– the theory of social exchange (J. Homans);

– The theory of social fact (E. Durheim);

– the theory of conflict (G.Spencer, M.Weber, R.Pakrk, D.Kozer, R.Dorendorf);

– Theory of psychoanalysis (Z.Freud, E.Fromm, K.Jung);

– The theory of social dynamics, social mobility, social stratification (P. Sorokin);

– The theory of social formations and historical materialism (K. Marx);

– Theory of phenomenology (A. Schutz, P. Berger, Ch. Cooley);

– modernization theory (Smelser);

– the theory of social attitudes (Volume);

– The theory of social space (Bourdieu).

All of them can be used to identify the current state of the studied phenomena.

The second level of scientific knowledge is the theories of the middle level. This term was introduced into the practice of researchers by the American sociologist Robert Merton. According to R. Merton, theories of the middle level are “theories that are in the intermediate space between particular, but also necessary working hypotheses that arise in many in the course of everyday research, and all-encompassing systematic attempts to create a unified theory that will explain all the observed types of social behavior, social organization and social change”.

Theories of the middle level allowed the social sciences to form branches of sociological knowledge – the sociology of the family, the sociology of education, the sociology of religion, etc.

There are two types of middle-level theories:

special , which reflect the forms of manifestation of the life of individual social groups, institutions, communities (sociology of youth);

sectoral , which reflect the form of manifestation and mechanisms of action of the laws of social development in various spheres of society (sociology of economics).

11. Empirical substantiation of sociological research.

The empirical foundations of sociological research are those sources, methods for obtaining and generalizing empirical data, through which the achievement of the goal and objectives of the study is ensured.[49]

There are four types of empirical data that sociologists use when designing a case study program.

[1] Sociological Encyclopedic Dictionary / Edited by G.V. Osipov. – M .: Publishing house NORM. 2000.

[2] D. Geri, D. Geri Big explanatory sociological dictionary. T. 2, – M .: Veche Ast, 1999.

[3] Averin Yu.P. Theoretical construction of quantitative sociological research.- M.: UDC. 2009. From 36.

[4] Workshop MMSI. 2012-2013.

[5] Grechikhin V.G. Lectures on methods and techniques of sociological research. M., Publishing House of Moscow State University, 1988. S. 29.

[6] World encyclopedia: philosophy. / Ed. A.A. Gritsanov. M.: AST, Mn.: Harvest, Modern writer, 2001.

[7] Dobrenkov V.I., Kravchenko A.I. Fundamental sociology: In 15 volumes. Volume 1. Theory and methodology.- M.: INFRA-M. 2003

[8] Sociological Encyclopedic Dictionary / Edited by G.V. Osipov. – M .: Publishing house NORM. 2000.

[9] Averin Yu.P. Theoretical construction of quantitative sociological research.- M.: UDC. 2009. From 36.

[10] O. Filatova . Sociology of mass communication: a short glossary.

[11] Averin Yu.P. Theoretical construction of quantitative sociological research.- M.: UDC. 2009. From 36.

[12] Averin Yu.P. Theoretical construction of quantitative sociological research.- M.: UDC. 2009. From 36.

[13] Sociological Encyclopedic Dictionary / Edited by G.V. Osipov. – M .: Publishing house NORM. 2000.

[14] Glossary of terms. [Electronic resource] URL: http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/business/7798 (date of access: 30.09.2012)

[15] Averin Yu.P. Theoretical construction of quantitative sociological research.- M.: UDC. 2009. From 19.

[16] Grechikhin V.G. Lectures on the Methods and Techniques of Sociological Research. – M., Publishing House of Moscow State University, 1988. P. 31.

[17] Kharcheva V . Applied sociological research. – In the book: Fundamentals of Sociology. – M., “Logos”, 1997 .. S.288.

[18] Sociological Encyclopedic Dictionary / Edited by G.V. Osipov. – M .: Publishing house NORM. 2000.

[19] Sociological Encyclopedic Dictionary / Edited by G.V. Osipov. – M .: Publishing house NORM. 2000.

[20] Averin Yu.P. Theoretical construction of quantitative sociological research.- M.: UDC. 2009. From 20.

[21] Averin Yu.P. Theoretical construction of quantitative sociological research.- M.: UDC. 2009. From 37.

[22] Averin Yu.P. Theoretical construction of quantitative sociological research.- M.: UDC. 2009. From 41.

[23] Averin Yu.P. Theoretical construction of quantitative sociological research.- M.: UDC. 2009. From 42.

[24] Averin Yu.P. Theoretical construction of quantitative sociological research.- M.: UDC. 2009. From 43.

[25] Averin Yu.P. Theoretical construction of quantitative sociological research.- M.: UDC. 2009. From 68.

[26] MMSI Workshop. 2012-2013

[27] Averin Yu.P. Theoretical construction of quantitative sociological research. – M.: UDC. 2009. From 71

[28] Encyclopedic Dictionary M 1979

[29] Averin Yu.P. Theoretical construction of quantitative sociological research. – M.: UDC. 2009. From 79.

[30] See ibid. p. 80

[31] See ibid. p. 81

[32] Averin Yu.P. Theoretical construction of quantitative sociological research. – M.: UDC. 2009. From 75.

[33] Averin Yu.P. Theoretical construction of quantitative sociological research. – M.: UDC. 2009. From 77.

[34] Averin Yu.P. Theoretical construction of quantitative sociological research. – M.: UDC. 2009. From 85.

[35] MMSI Workshop. 2012-2013.

[36] Averin Yu.P. Theoretical construction of quantitative sociological research. – M.: UDC. 2009. From 92

[37] Averin Yu.P. Theoretical construction of quantitative sociological research. – M.: UDC. 2009. From 94

[38] Averin Yu.P. Theoretical construction of quantitative sociological research. – M.: UDC. 2009. From 103

[39] MMSI Workshop. 2012-213.

[40] Averin Yu.P. Theoretical construction of quantitative sociological research. – M.: UDC. 2009. From 104

[41] Averin Yu.P. Theoretical construction of quantitative sociological research. – M.: UDC. 2009, p. 107

[42] Averin Yu.P. Theoretical construction of quantitative sociological research. – M.: UDC. 2009, p. 108

[43] Averin Yu.P. Theoretical construction of quantitative sociological research. – M.: UDC. 2009, p. 108

[44] Averin Yu.P. Theoretical construction of quantitative sociological research. – M.: UDC. 2009, p. 110

[45] Averin Yu.P. Theoretical construction of quantitative sociological research. – M.: UDC. 2009. S. 111-112

[46] [46] Averin Yu.P. Theoretical construction of quantitative sociological research. – M.: UDC. 2009. S. 112-113

[47] Averin Yu.P. Theoretical construction of quantitative sociological research. – M.: UDC. 2009, p. 114

[48] Averin Yu.P. Theoretical construction of quantitative sociological research. – M.: UDC. 2009, p. 117

[49] Averin Yu.P. Theoretical construction of quantitative sociological research. – M.: UDC. 2009, p. 122

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