The process of institutionalization and its main stages”

The process of institutionalization is the process of defining and prohibiting social norms, statuses, roles and bringing them into a system that is able to act in the direction of satisfying some social need. Replacing spontaneous and experimental behavior with predictable behavior that is expected, modeled and regulated.

The following main stages of the institutionalization of sociology can be distinguished:

1. Science would be impossible without the appearance of the name itself and the definition of its subject area, therefore, one of the first stages can be considered the 1830s, when O. Comte introduced the name “sociology” and determined its initial subject.

2. The further development of a new science is impossible without the development of more or less precisely defined concepts and terms that are peculiar to it, i.e., the development of a common vocabulary. It is also impossible to develop without stable communications between potential and real researchers in this field of scientific knowledge. At first, this interaction is conducted on an informal basis – in the form of correspondence, scientific seminars, etc. Thus, a stable circle of specialists and contacts between them is formed.

3. An important step in institutionalization was the positioning by scientists of themselves as “sociologists” and presenting themselves to society in this capacity.

The new discipline, often under different names, is included in the lecture courses of higher educational institutions and gradually acquires the status of a full-fledged academic science.

4. The decisive contribution to the institutionalization of sociology belongs to E. Durkheim – the founder of the world’s first department of sociology at the Sorbonne and the first periodical – “Sociological Yearbook”.

Similar steps were taken in the USA: in 1892, the first department of sociology was founded at Columbia University, and in 1895, the American Journal of Sociology, which is still published today.

5. The final stage of institutionalization can be considered the inclusion of sociological specialties in the state registers and standards of economically highly developed countries, which officially fixed the professional requirements for the training and qualification of sociologists. Thus, the formalization of their social positions in the structure of society was completed.

In the 60s. 20th century in the United States, government subsidies increased sharply, which ensured the rapid development of academic sociology. The number of American sociologists exceeded the number of sociologists in all other countries of the world. Today, more than 30 sociological journals are published in the United States and more than 20,000 professionals in the field of sociology work.

In our country, the process was more complicated. After an active initial stage in the late XIX – early XX century. development of sociology was stopped. Only in the 60s. 20th century Empirical sociology began to revive, and the Department of Methods of Concrete Social Research was opened at Moscow State University (1968). Only in 1974 did the professional journal Sociological Research appear, and in the late 1980s. the position of “sociologist” was introduced into the state Unified Tariff and Qualification Directory (ETKS).

Since the opening in 1989 of the Faculty of Sociology at Moscow State University, the first in the USSR, about 20,000 graduates have received sociological education in the country, although this does not mean that all of them work as professional sociologists.

In general, it can be said that the institutionalization of sociology in our country has gone through the same stages as in other countries, but lagging behind the practice of highly developed industrial countries by almost 100 years.

Analysis of scientific article»

CONCLUSION Here we will put an end to the discussion, leaving many sociological problems out of the discussion. It’s not about quantity. Any process connected in any way with human interactions can be considered sociologically. Therefore, it is hardly possible to give at least a list of sociological problems. But the specificity of sociology is revealed by a minimum of examples, if they are stated precisely sociologically. The main feature of sociology is that it is a science. Recalling the obvious, we emphasize the fact that sociology is a way for a person to know himself and society at a certain historical stage. Many researchers of antiquity and the Middle Ages in their reflections proceeded from the understanding of man as a trinity of body, soul and spirit. Then, for a number of reasons (not discussed here), this idea is gradually “forgotten”. In 869 in Constantinople, at the Eighth Council of the Catholic Church, it was decided to consider that a person consists of a body and soul, and the spirit was excluded. By the 15th-17th centuries, as a result of the formation of modern science, the “soul” was replaced by “consciousness”. An understanding of man was formed, which is still preserved: a body that has consciousness as the ability to reflect the diversity of the world in ideal images. Sociology acts as a consequence of such an initial understanding, becoming like the natural sciences, i.e., having “beheaded” the spirit and soul of a person, reducing it to a model subject to scientific methods. Therefore, in assessing the situation objectively, we should not demand more from sociology than it can give. Unraveling the “mysteries of the soul” is not her task. The more persistently we delve into sociology, the more often we feel the need to master other ways of understanding a person – philosophy, religion, fiction. A person is too complex to be completely covered by one of the approaches. And in the many-voiced choir of human science, sociology plays its part worthily. What benefit can we derive from the study of sociology? We are doomed to live and act in society. Do we want to be extras in the game of alien and incomprehensible social and natural forces or conscious creators of our own destiny? That’s the whole point. If we choose the second option, we must understand that conscious life requires effort. There is no such instance that could give it to us. Conscious life is conquered. And in this struggle, primarily with oneself (with one’s egoism, passions, laziness, etc.), sociology is a serious help. Sociology is a modern form of critical thought that rejects dogmas and stereotypes that have overflowed the “bins” of social science and wants to independently develop its own vision of social processes. To think sociologically means to be a civilized person. Of course, civility is not covered by this, but today it is impossible even without a sociological component. Sociological concepts have the peculiarity that their “pedigree” goes into everyday life. Consequently, our daily life produces certain landmarks, thanks to which we exist in it. These landmarks are clothed in words, which are transformed into sociological matrices or become the basis on which other concepts are built up, turning into specifically scientific ones. Therefore, on the one hand, the sociologist talks about what, it would seem, everyone already knows. On the other hand, the sociological view allows you to see the world in a different light, turning the familiar and banal into something unexpected and unfamiliar. The ability to see the new, the unusual through the veil of everyday life, testifies to inner activity, to the real possibility of personal development. Social interactions are designed in such a way that they assume a knowledgeable person. Whether we have true or false knowledge is another question. But we can live and act like human beings, provided that we have our own opinion on this or that particular case. Very often we don’t know, but we think we know. There can be a lot of opinions on the same subject, as many as there are people (and even more). What to do in case of disagreement? Learn to listen and understand other people without imposing your point of view on them. Learn to take into account the positions of all competing parties. Learn to be tolerant. Sociological thinking with its flexibility, denial of claims to absolute correctness, practical orientation is an effective means of forming the required qualities. The best sociology can do is to spur our lazy imagination. Conscious life presupposes the ability to see the social in the individual, the general in the particular. Each person is needed by society, any individual biography is intertwined with history. This statement seems to be an exaggeration used “for a red word”. Indeed, what will change in history if a student skips the first class and sleeps an extra hour? Or how can a drunken bum sleeping under a fence affect history? Who knows, maybe it is in this kind of situations that history plays out more significant events than many officially “significant” events. Like it or not, it is impossible to say in advance. Apart from us and instead of us, no one can understand or realize this. And we will comply with the spirit of the times only if the most important condition is observed – the ability to think adequately to the essence of man and society. It’s incredibly difficult to think like that. But you can, if you really want to, master the art of living thinking. One of the most important values of mankind, perhaps even the meaning of history, is freedom. Developed thinking, a sober awareness of one’s position is a condition of freedom. A free man determines his own life. They cannot be manipulated.


Sociological knowledge penetrates into broad sections of society in many ways. First, a growing number of professionals are applying their sociology training to government agencies such as the Bureau of the Census and to organizations dealing with alcohol and drug abuse.

Secondly, the methods developed by sociologists and other social scientists are studied and used by various specialists. A prime example is public opinion polls. Developed and applied mainly by sociologists and statisticians, they have become an important method of market research and opinion polling.

In addition to the areas of application of sociology already discussed, the work of sociologists and other social scientists provides a wealth of information that is important for decision-making in social policy. For example, if the US Department of Health and Human Services were to distribute literature to reduce the number of illegitimate children, a sociological study would provide information on population groups with the highest level of illegitimacy, on the extent to which this campaign will reach them. , on the effectiveness of distributing literature on birth control. Finally, a sociological /36/ study can help determine the results of social policy measures after their implementation. For example, sociologists evaluated the results of the program “Mental Development”, designed to help children from poor families before they enter school.

A study of this program showed that it increased the IQ in children. True, further research found that after a couple of years, these children ceased to stand out among others in this indicator. But on the other hand, as teenagers, they were less likely to fall behind in their studies, graduate from high school more often, and showed a greater desire to get a higher education than children who were not covered by the Mental Development program (Brown, Grotberg, 1980). This type of research is called evaluation, it has become quite widespread over the past 15-20 years.


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3. M. I. Zuy Manual “Introduction to Sociology”

4. Scientific and educational journal “Skepsis”

5. S. A. Davydov Sociology: lecture notes.


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