The main directions of the regional social

Branch “Kotelniki”

Department of Economics


By discipline: “Regional Economics”


4th year student

full-time education,


__ ________ Zhivotova V.V.


____________ Puganovskaya T.I.

Kotelniki – 2016

Topic 1.

Questions and tasks for self-control

1. Describe the relationship of the discipline “Regional Economics and Ter-

rhetorical planning” with other disciplines.

Discipline “Regional economics and ter-

rhetorical planning “is included in the system-wide science – regional studies. The discipline is mutual

is connected with such sciences as economic theory, demography, socio-

ology, political science, state science, statistics, and a number of other sciences.

2. What is the object of study of the discipline “Regional Economics and Ter-

rhetorical planning?

The object of study of the discipline “Regional Economics and Ter-

rhetorical planning” territorial aspects of socio-ecological

economic system of the country, functioning of territorial

subsystems of the national economy, their individual elements and mutual

actions between them, as well as mechanisms for managing the socio-economic

the dynamic development of the regions.

3. What is the subject of the regional economy and territorial plan


The subject of regional economics and territorial planning

economics are the study of the managerial aspects of solving pro-

strange problems of economic development of the national economy,

determination of ways and mechanisms of development, as well as the study of geographical

and economic conditions for the deployment of productive forces in Russia .

4. Describe the tasks of the regional economy and territorial plan


The main attention in the study of the discipline is given to the following

important tasks of the regional economy and territorial planning


• Ensuring expanded reproduction of living conditions

the population of the region, high level and quality of life;

• economic and social transformation of the economy of the region, ana-

lysis, forecasting and programming of regional development;

• optimization of financial flows, formation of conditions and mecha-

ways to strengthen the economic base of the region and municipalities


• Ensuring environmental safety in the region, protecting the environment

working environment;

• formation and implementation of structural, investment and scientific

technical policy in the region, the formation and development of market


• analysis of the use of the territory and predicted restrictions on its


• ensuring sustainable development and increasing investment

attractiveness of the territory of the subject of the Russian Federation.

5. What is the paradigm of the region as a quasi-state, quasi-corporation,

market area, society?

The paradigm of the region , substantiated by Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences A. G. Granberg :

• region is a quasi-state. Representative bodies are being formed in the region

executive and executive power, regulation of eco-

nomics within their own boundaries;

• the region is a quasi-corporation. The region is a major owner,

economic entity with significant potential

cial for self-development, creating an environment for the effective development of all

types of economic activity carried out on its territory;

• region – market area. The region is characterized by general conditions

management pits within its territory;

• region – society. Within the region, the following are reproduced

social elements: population, labor resources, science, education,

health care, culture, environment, etc.

6. Describe the region as a single holistic territorial socio-eco-

logo-economic system.

The region is a single integral territorial socio-ecological

economic system, within which the following consolidations are distinguished

certain interconnected and interdependent block-components:

institutional , economic and economic , natural and environmental ,


7. By what criteria can the object of regional management be classified?

and territorial planning?

Taking into account the essence, content and tasks of regional management,

its object can be classified according to the following main features:

1) form of ownership (federal, property of a subject of the federation

tion, municipal, etc.);

2) the nature of the products or services produced by the economic entity

ektom (products are wholly or mainly consumed within the region,

products have interregional consumption, export products

and etc.);

3) the nature and extent of the impact of the economic entity on the economic

mic, social, ecological and other processes in the region;

4) reproduction of the living conditions of the population, satisfying

stealing the needs of people outside the sphere of production (health,

satisfaction of needs in education and culture, social support

holding, etc.).

8. Describe the levels of regional government and territorial plan


the federal level , which develops and implements state

gift strategy of socio-economic development;

interregional level (the level of macroregions — federal

districts), which coordinates the implementation of large-scale

socio-economic programs and priority national projects

projects on the territory of the districts, as well as the actions of the administrations of the subjects

the Russian Federation, which are part of the districts;

regional level , at which the regional

socio-economic policy, i.e. subject policy

federation, the main tasks of which are the tasks of solving social

economic problems of the Russian regions based on the development

and use of regional factors of production;

municipal level , which is the habitat and communication,

a place where a human community is formed, part of a civil

society where each individual has the opportunity to realize his

needs, interests, abilities;

microlevel .

9. Describe the forms of regional government and territorial plan


General and sectoral , or sectoral , forms of territorial planning. To sectoral forms of territorial or spatial plan

nirovaniya include agricultural, forestry, water management

natural, transport, environmental, recreational and some

other types of planning.

Often, landscape planning is considered as one of the forms

branch. However, it is inherently intersectoral, or

intersectoral, planning, since it deals with lands of various

purpose and use and takes into account all functions


10. What are the functions in terms of the functioning and development of socio-ecological-ecological

nomic systems perform socio-economic institutions?

Socio-economic institutions in terms of functioning

and development of socio-ecological-economic systems perform the following functions : direct, limit, encourage, coordinate, regulate

they inform, inform economic agents, contribute to the assessment of their activities

efficiency and communications, optimize the distribution and selection of restrictions

worthless benefits.

11. What are the main directions of the regional socio-economic


The main directions of the regional social

al-economic policy :

• improvement of the institutional system (creation of clear

and understandable “rules of the game”);

• ensuring sustainable economic growth, including the formation

creating a favorable investment climate; economic development

innovative type;

• reforming sectors related to development and conservation

human potential, including the implementation of priority national

cash projects;

• development of social and industrial infrastructure;

• development of territories, assistance to municipalities;

• reforming the management of state and municipal property;


Calculation problems

1. Based on the available data on the subjects of the Russian Federation, analyze the absolute

(by how many units) and relative (%) change in the number of municipal

health care institutions in 2012 compared to 2011 Draw conclusions.


Let us find indicators of absolute and relative growth in the number of municipal health care institutions from 2011 to 2012.

Let’s put them in a spreadsheet.

Subject Abs gain, pcs Rel gain
RF -2018 -31%
FO Center -693 -48%
North-West Federal District -237 -51%
Southern Federal District -28 -4%
Sev-Kav FD eight%
Pref. FD -474 -35%
Ural. FD -152 -thirty%
Sib. FD -313 -27%
Dalnev. FD -159 -33%

Having calculated the indicators of absolute and relative growth, we can conclude that an increase in the number of medical institutions from 2011 to 2012 is observed exclusively in the North Caucasus Federal District, while in other regions there is a significant drop in indicators. The situation is especially critical in the Northwestern Federal District, where the number of medical institutions has decreased by 51%.

2. Based on the indicators for the Ural Federal District, evaluate:

1) the proportion of the number of municipalities of the Ural federation

district as of January 1, 2013 (total and by selected types – formations,

culture, sports);

2) deficit (surplus) of local budgets;

3) the share of the number of employees of local governments

(at the end of the year) by subjects of the Ural Federal District in their total number;

4) indicators of the variation of the average monthly accrued wages of work –

employees of local governments in the Ural Federal District (various

max variation, mean linear deviation, standard deviation,

the coefficient of variation).

Draw your own conclusions.

Let’s create a spreadsheet

Weight.of the population of the municipality URFO Budget deficit/surplus Mun. arr. municipality
education culture sports by mun. arr. Total:
59% fourteen% 4% 57%
Specific weight of the number of employees of local self-government bodies. subjects of the Ural Federal District -319 budget deficit in Kurg.reg.
Khan.-Man. AO-Yugra Yam.-Nen. JSC People region -11195 budget deficit in Sverdl.
eighteen% eleven% 29% -13592 budget deficit in the Tyumen region
Indicators of variation average monthly. salary in URFO
Range of variation R^2 = 73008.0 -13100 budget deficit According to Kh-M AO-Ugra = 21548.3 budget balance Yam.-Nen. JSC
RMS = 38227.4 -3075 budget deficit in Chel.reg.
Coefficient of variation = 89.75%

It can be concluded that:

– in all regions, with the exception of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, there is a significant budget deficit, this indicator is most pronounced in the Tyumen region;

– in the Urals Federal District, among the functioning institutions, educational institutions have the largest share;

– most employees of local governments in the Chelyabinsk region;

– the coefficient of variation for the average monthly wage in the Urals Federal District is ≈ 90%, which means a high degree of scatter in the values in the aggregate

Verification tests:

1) a

2) b

3) b

4) a

5) a

Topic 2

Questions and tasks for self-control

  1. What underlies the theory of the agricultural standard of J. Thünen?

Thünen assumed the existence of a state economically isolated from the rest of the world, within which there is a central city, which is the only market for agricultural products and a source of industrial goods. Here, the price of each product at any point in space differs from its price in the city by the amount of transportation costs, which are taken to be directly proportional to the weight of the cargo and the distance of transportation.

  1. What is the essence of the rational standard of an industrial enterprise by W. Lunhardt?

The decisive factor in the location of production for W. Launhardt, as well as for J. Thünen, is transport costs. Production costs are assumed to be equal for all points of the study area. The point of optimal location of the enterprise depends on the weight ratio of the transported goods and distances. To solve this problem, W. Launhardt developed the weight (or location) triangle method.

  1. What is the basis of A. Weber’s theory of the industrial standard?

A. Weber created a detailed classification of placement factors according to their influence, degree of generality and manifestations. He calls the placement factor an economic benefit, “which is revealed for economic activity depending on the place where this activity is carried out. This benefit consists in reducing the costs of producing and marketing a certain industrial product and, therefore, means the ability to manufacture this product in one of any place at a lower cost than elsewhere. As a result of sifting out elements of production costs that do not depend on location, A. Weber leaves three factors: the cost of raw materials, labor costs and transportation costs. However, the first of these – the difference in prices for the materials used – can, according to Weber, be expressed in differences in transport costs, excluding from independent analysis. All other conditions, including the location of the enterprise, he considers as some kind of “united agglomeration force”, or the third standard factor. Thus, ultimately, three factors are analyzed: transport, labor force and agglomeration. Further analysis is carried out sequentially according to three factors. Accordingly, three main orientations in location are distinguished: transport, working and agglomeration.

  1. What are the characteristics of the central place theory?

V.Kristaller calls the central places economic centers that serve goods and services not only to themselves, but also to the population of their district (sales zone). According to V. Kristaller, over time, service and sales areas tend to take shape in regular hexagons (honeycombs), and the entire populated area is covered with hexagons without gaps (Kristaller lattice). This minimizes the average distance for product distribution or travel to shopping and service centers. The theory of V. Kristaller explains why some goods and services should be produced (provided) in each settlement (essential products), others – in medium-sized settlements (ordinary clothing, basic household services, etc.), others – only in large cities (luxury goods, theatres, museums, etc.) Each central place has the greater the sales area, the higher the level of the hierarchy to which it belongs. In addition to the products needed for the zone of its rank (its own hexagon), the center produces (provides) goods and services that are typical for all centers of lower ranks.

  1. What criteria are taken as a basis in the theories of regional specialization and interregional trade?

The theoretical principles of industrial specialization of regions and interregional trade were formally (conceptually, terminologically) first derived within the framework of the theories of international economic relations, i.e. internationalists and not regionalists. In this regard, it is necessary to name the classics of the English political economy A. Smith and D. Ricardo and the Swedish economists E. Heckscher and B. Ohlin. Why are the scientific results obtained by them rightfully attributed to the theoretical foundations of the regional economy? In ch. 1, we noted the presence of many common features and problems in the interregional and international division of labor, in interregional and international trade, but there are also qualitative differences.

The interregional division of labor and international trade are processes taking place within the framework of various parts of one national free trade zone, one customs territory, one currency system, one national labor and capital market. In inter-regional trade, as a rule, there are no administrative, customs, political, linguistic and other barriers that remain to some extent in international economic relations, despite the prevailing trend of liberalization and globalization.

The main conclusions of the international theories of Smith-Ricardo and Heckscher-Ohlin were obtained in the system of postulates of interregional relations, despite the fact that their authors in their explanatory situations mention England, Scotland, Portugal and give other international examples. Of course, the conclusions in question are also applicable to international relations (to a greater extent this applies to currency and trade unions, common markets), but they require additions and adjustments that take into account the specifics of international relations (the inclusion of currency, customs, institutional and other conditions). B. Olin, Nobel Prize winner, called his main work “Interregional and International Trade” (1933), emphasizing the similarities and differences between the two types of trade.

  1. Describe the essence of the production location theory of A. Lyosha

A. Losh gave a detailed mathematical description of the market functioning of the system of producers and consumers, where each economic variable is tied to a certain point in space. The main elements of the equations of the equilibrium model are the functions of demand and costs. The state of equilibrium, according to A. Lesh, is characterized by the following conditions:

  • the location of each firm has the greatest possible advantages for producers and consumers;
  • firms are located so that the territory is fully used;
  • there is equality of prices and costs (there is no excess income);
  • all market zones have a minimum size (in the form of a hexagon);
  • the boundaries of market arenas pass along the lines of indifference (isolines), which, according to A. Lyosha, ensures the stability of the equilibrium found.
  1. Compare the models of the placement theories of A. Lesch and J. Tünen and draw conclusions

Integrating the experience of his predecessors (Johann Thünen, Wilhelm Launhardt, Alfred Weber, etc.), Lösch creates his own concept of the economic landscape, in which the determining factor is the marketing zones of enterprises of various levels, forming a network of economic regions with nodes in cities. The ideal shape of the network is hexagonal cells; in reality, the cells are shaped like triangles or quadrilaterals. Unlike similar constructions, the model proposed by Lesh was a model of market equilibrium, and not a planned prescription, in fact, it was a model of the territorial self-organization of society and its economic life.

  1. What principles and approaches form the basis of territorial planning in the economy?

The principles of territorial planning are aimed at preserving and improving the quality of life of the population of the region. Which means ensuring equal access for the population to social and economic benefits, ensuring social sustainability through the development of education, health care, leisure facilities and ensuring access to paid work.

The main targets of territorial planning are:

Ensuring the availability and quality of basic social services by increasing the mobility and quality of the service system and population mobility.

The priority in economic development is to attract any private investment in order to provide the population with jobs directly on the territory of the district.

Maximum use of opportunities for complexing production, building technological chains in the region, in order to reduce both financial and material costs and maximize income and profits in the region.

The principle of sharing responsibility for the socio-cultural environment between government and business. While maintaining the general access of investors to the district, the creation of more favorable conditions for investors who are socially active: participating in training and retraining programs in the Kursk region, contributing to the formation of a favorable socio-cultural environment in the places of their operation and residence of employees.

Optimization of budgetary expenses. Strengthening the target function of the use of funds, minimizing budget costs while strengthening their targeting.

There are a number of promising approaches that contain an alternative to the classical approaches of the scientific point of view on the management of regional formations. It should be distinguished in the composition of such approaches: ecological, social, economic, integrated and geosystemic.

  1. Describe the stages of development of the theory and practice of regional management and territorial planning in domestic science

The first stage is from the 1920s to the 1970s. – was marked by the beginning of large-scale practical territorial and economic research and the creation of prerequisites for the formation of a regional economy.

Since the late 1950s an active convergence of previously developed isolated domestic and foreign regional studies began.

For the second stage – from the 1960s to the 1990s. – characteristic of the root

restructuring of territorial and economic studies, the origin and initial development of the planned economy of the regional economy.

The third stage – from the beginning of the 1990s. — was accompanied by adaptation of the region

nal economy to market relations.

Verification tests:

1) b

2) b


4) a, c


A- b

B – a


G – g

6) g

7) b

8) a

Topic 3.

Questions and tasks for self-control

1. Describe the methods used in regional management and territorial planning

Regional economics and territorial planning in their research uses the following methods:

· System analysis. This method is based on the principle of stages (setting a goal, defining tasks, formulating a scientific hypothesis, a comprehensive study of the features of the optimal variant of the location of industries). This is a method of scientific knowledge that allows you to study the structure of the sectors of the economy, their internal connections and interaction.

The method of systematization. It is associated with the division of the studied phenomena (based on the objectives of the study) and selected criteria into sets, characterized by a certain commonality and distinctive features. We are talking about such techniques as classification, typology, concentration and others.

The balance method. It consists in compiling regional balances and allows you to choose the right relationship between the sectors of specialization of the market region and industries that complement the territorial complex, infrastructure (material and social). Compilation of sectoral and regional balances helps to determine the rational level of integrated development of regions, the presence of disproportions in their development. Balance sheets are also needed to develop rational inter-district links.

· Method of economic and geographical research. This method is divided into three components: regional (study of the ways of formation and development of territories, study of development and placement, social production in regional development), sectoral (study of the ways of formation and functioning of economic sectors in a geographical aspect, study and placement of social production in the sectoral context ) and the local method (study of the ways of formation and development of production in an individual city, village; study of the development and distribution of production in its primary cells).

· Cartographic method. It allows you to visualize the features of placement and quantitative indicators characterizing the levels of development of the regions. Maps, cartograms, cartograms are figurative models of territories, on which objects, phenomena and their interconnections are displayed with the help of conventional signs.

· Method of economic and mathematical modeling (modeling of territorial proportions of the development of the region’s economy; modeling by sectors of the region; modeling the formation of economic complexes in the region). With the use of modern electronic means, this method allows, with minimal labor and time, to process a huge and diverse statistical material, various initial data characterizing the level, structure, and characteristics of the socio-economic complex of the region. It makes it possible to choose the best solutions, best options, models, in accordance with the goals set for the regional study.

2. What is the basis of regional economic and mathematical models?

The basis of regional economic and mathematical models are the following provisions:

– socio-economic aspects of each specific region are considered as the main part of the overall system of regions of the country; hence the conclusion: the assessment of various options for the effective formation of the region proceeds from the optimal territorial economic proportions of the national economy for a certain period;

– regional territorial models correct sectoral models of economic location based on territorial socio-economic information of the prospective balance of natural resource and labor potential, a network of urban and rural settlements, transport links, etc.

– regional models are inextricably linked with models of territorial proportions, with sectoral economic and mathematical calculations and represent an organic part of the general scientific and methodological approach to the variant assessment of the prospective distribution of productive forces and the optimal formation of the economy of the entire system of regions.

3. Representatives of what sciences use spatial models of regional development and how?

Spatial models of regional development is a popular interdisciplinary research topic of specialists in socio-economic geography and regional economics, territorial planning (district planning) and urban planning

4. What spatial models do you know that are used in the development and implementation of strategies for the socio-economic development of Russian regions?

a) Functional models (socio-economic zoning, formation of specialized zones, areas, centers, parks).

b) Wireframe models (development of territorial frameworks, corridors, development axes, agglomerations and core cities based on infrastructure).

c) Cluster models (formation of territorial complexes with cores, key facilities and zones for the development of competitive entrepreneurship, including pilot projects of clusters with the active participation of the state).

5. Give examples of elements of spatial structure in your area

1. A point is an object or area, the internal dimensions of which can be neglected: Shosseynaya 1, Lyubertsy – an ordinary residential building.

2. The center is such an object (or a highly concentrated group of objects) that performs an important function (administrative, economic, industrial, informational, etc.) in relation to the rest of the internal space: Oktyabrsky Prospekt 190, Lyubertsy – the building of the City Administration Lyubertsy + MFC building in Lyubertsy.

3. The core is a certain part of the region in which its essential features are most pronounced: October Avenue 198, Lyubertsy – the city center, the most popular cinema is located in this room, next to it is the City Administration, Central Park, Lyubertsy station -1 and the Central City Market.

6. What methodological approaches are used in the analysis of the structure of regional and territorial government?

– The neoclassical direction of economic science involves

minimization of state intervention in the economic and social

social sphere, the liberalization of socio-economic policy.

– The neo-Keynesian direction of economic science provides

active state participation in social and economic processes

sakh on the territory and the search for ways of self-development, supervision of public

needs and investment participation of the state in the development of society, the concentration of the most valuable factors and resources on the most important

shi directions of policy.

– Institutional approach, providing for the development and implementation of socio-economic policy

based on the broad participation of economic agents operating in the territory


Verification tests:





2) a

3) a

4) a


A – a

B – b

Topic 4.

Questions and tasks for self-control

1. What is a region and sub-region?

In the Basic Provisions of Regional Policy in the Russian Federation, a region is defined as a part of the territory of the Russian Federation that has a common natural, socio-economic, national, cultural and other conditions.

Sub-regions are large parts of regions that have specific features and characteristics within themselves.

2. What is system analysis? Give examples of the use of system analysis in regional studies.

System analysis is a comprehensive study of the structure of the economy, internal relationships and interaction of elements.

Methods of systematization in regional studies:

Classification is a grouping of the studied objects into sets that differ among themselves mainly in quantitative terms, and the qualitative difference reflects the dynamics of the development of objects or their hierarchical order.

Typology is a grouping of the studied objects into sets that steadily differ from each other in terms of quality.

Concentration is a methodical technique in the study of complex geographical objects, in which either the number of additional elements in relation to the main object, associated with it and affecting the completeness of the study, either increases or decreases.

Taxonization is the process of dividing a territory into comparable or hierarchical subordinate taxa.

Regionalization is the process of taxonization, in which identifiable taxa must meet two criteria: specificity and unity.

System analysis is used during statistical studies of various indicators in the regions.

3. Name the main schools of regional economics in domestic research in the 20th-21st centuries.

4. In what cases and for what purpose can modeling be used in regional analysis?

There are two main areas of application of mathematical models in economics:

· development and deepening of theory and methodology;

solving practical problems.

For a number of scientific schools in the regional economy, the study of models is the main way to obtain theoretical knowledge. Models for new theories are being created (as generators of theories), in addition, the classical theories of the regional economy are being modernized by expressing them in the language of modern mathematics. It should be noted a significant expansion and complication of the mathematical apparatus used in the theory of regional economics.

Mathematical models are widely used in solving practical problems of the regional economy: when constructing regional typologies, regional situational analysis, developing forecasts, simulating the consequences of socio-economic measures at the national and regional levels, substantiating the parameters of financial and economic mechanisms, etc. The scope of effective application of mathematical modeling limited mainly by the possibilities of formalization of socio-economic situations and the state of information support of the developed models.

5. How is the quality of governance institutions assessed? How important is this for the development of the region?

At present, the following mechanisms for monitoring the quality of management institutions can be distinguished in Russia:

– monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of the implementation of programs and strategies;

– branch principle;

– annual reporting as part of the budget cycle;

– Evaluation of efficiency at the level of specific governing bodies.

This assessment is important, as it allows you to build more accurate forecasts for the development of the region.

6. How to use the input-output table to calculate the effectiveness of regional government programs?

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