The main characteristics of modern post-non-classical science.

In the second half of the XX century. there have been changes in science that have made it possible to talk about a new, post-non-classical, stage of its development. Among domestic authors, one of the first to systematize the features of post-non-classical science, V. S. Stepin, highlighting the following signs of the post-non-classical stage: a change in the nature of scientific activity due to a revolution in the means of obtaining and storing knowledge (computerization of science, merging science with industrial production, etc.) ; dissemination of interdisciplinary research and integrated research programs; increasing the importance of economic and socio-political factors and goals; change of the object itself – open self-developing systems; the inclusion of axiological factors in the composition of explanatory sentences; the use in natural science of the methods of the humanities, in particular, the principle of historical reconstruction.

As a result, in “science of the second half of the 20th century, human orientations were identified” both in research methods and in external general cultural and philosophical understanding. Generalizing works were published in which modern scientific activity, principles, and attitudes of science were characterized by significant changes.

These philosophical and methodological searches are based on real phenomena of emerging science. In the studies of I. Prigozhin, G. Haken, E. Jancz, U. Maturana and others, an evolutionary-synergetic paradigm is being formed. F. Capra speaks about the systemic paradigm represented by the works of J. Chu, G. Bateson, D. Bohm, E. F. Schumacher, I. Prigogine, E. Janch and others. Methodologists identify trends in the greening and humanization of science. The ecological (environmental) direction of post-non-classical science unites A. Nass, B. Deval, J. Sessions, B. Calicotte, L. N. Everden, B. Tokkar, Y. Hargrove and others. Humanization manifests itself in the natural sciences through the ecologization of thinking, through analysis of language, through psychoanalysis. Let us concretize the features of post-non-classical science.

The object of post-non-classical science is self-developing complex systems, natural complexes, including a person. The main feature of such objects is denoted by the term “human dimension”. The key ideas of post-non-classical science are non-linearity, co-evolution, self-organization, the idea of global evolutionism, synchronicity, systemicity. Reality is characterized on the basis of two complementary approaches – systemic and historical: reality as a process and reality as a network of relationships in which a person is included.

The formation of post-non-classical science is accompanied by the expansion of the epistemological horizon. The theme of understanding has entered the problematics of the natural sciences. One of the most stable interpretations of understanding is dialogue. Dialogue appears in Martin Buber (German-Jewish existential philosopher, theoretician of Zionism) as a way of being, he created a dialogue ontology, which is very relevant in the modern crisis era. It corresponds to the spirit of the time and, moreover, is consistent with the trends of intra-scientific dynamics. According to M. Buber, through dialogue we overcome the world of “experience” and enter the world of “relationships”, and science, as shown above, has revealed not “objects in themselves”, but their relationships.

The main characteristics of modern, post-non-classical science:

1. Wide dissemination of ideas and methods of synergetics – the theory of self-organization and development of complex systems of any nature. In synergetics, it is shown that modern science deals with very complex systems of different levels of organization, the connection between which is carried out through chaos. Each such system appears as an “evolutionary whole”. Synergetics opens up new boundaries of superposition, assembly of the last of the parts, building complex developing structures from simple ones. At the same time, she proceeds from the fact that the unification of structures is not reduced to their simple addition, but there is an overlap of areas of their localization: the whole is no longer equal to the sum of parts, it is no more and no less than the sum of parts, it is qualitatively different.

2. Strengthening the paradigm of integrity, i.e. awareness of the need for a global comprehensive view of the world: a) a person is not outside the studied object, but inside it; b) the ideas and principles of natural science are increasingly being introduced into the humanities, but the reverse process is also taking place; c) the emergence of private sciences beyond the limits set by the classical culture of the West.

3. Strengthening and ever wider application of the idea (principle) of co-evolution, i.e. conjugated, interdependent change of systems or parts within the whole. Being biological in origin, associated with the study of the joint evolution of various biological objects and their levels of organization, the concept of coevolution today covers a generalized picture of all conceivable evolutionary processes – this is global evolutionism. Co-evolution takes place in the unity of natural and social processes.

4. Changing the nature of the object of study and strengthening the role of interdisciplinary integrated approaches in its study. The objects of modern science are the so-called “human-sized” systems: medical and biological objects, objects of ecology, including the biosphere as a whole (global ecology), objects of biotechnology (primarily genetic engineering), “man-machine” systems, etc. Changing the nature of the object of study in post-non-classical science leads to a change in approaches and methods of research, the specifics of modern science are increasingly determined by complex research programs, interdisciplinary research.

5. An even wider application of philosophy and its methods in all sciences. The problem, again, is what kind of philosophy we are talking about and how exactly it affects the development of the natural sciences at the beginning of the 20th century. The subject of active discussion today are questions about philosophy itself as such; its place in modern culture; about the specifics of philosophical knowledge, its functions and sources; about its possibilities and prospects; about the mechanism of its influence on the development of knowledge (including scientific) and other forms of human activity.

6. Methodological pluralism, awareness of the limitations, one-sidedness of any methodology, including rationalistic (including dialectical-materialistic). The search for beauty, that is, the unity and symmetry of the laws of nature, is a remarkable feature of modern physics and a number of other natural sciences.

7. Gradual and steady weakening of the requirements for strict standards of scientific discourse – the logical, conceptual component and the strengthening of the role of the non-rational component.

8. Connecting the objective world and the human world, overcoming the gap between the object and the subject. Nature is not an automaton; it cannot be forced to say only what the scientist wants to hear. Scientific research is not a monologue, but a dialogue with nature.

In the natural sciences of the XX century. the so-called “anthropic principle” has been formed and is becoming more widespread (although it is the subject of discussion), according to which the Universe is a complex self-organizing system, the inclusion of a person in it cannot be discarded as a kind of manifestation of “scientific extremism”.

9. The introduction of time into all sciences, the ever wider dissemination of the idea of development (“importation” of science). “building a bridge between being and becoming. I. Prigogine believes that we are entering a new era in the history of time (which “penetrated everywhere”), when being and becoming can be combined – with the priority of the latter.

10. The increasing mathematization of scientific theories and the increasing level of their abstractness and complexity. This feature of modern science has led to the fact that the work with its new theories, due to the high level of abstraction of the concepts introduced into them, has turned into a new and peculiar type of activity. In this regard, some scientists speak, in particular, of the threat of the transformation of theoretical physics into a mathematical theory. Computerization, the strengthening of the alternativeness and complexity of science is accompanied by a change in its “empirical component”. We are talking about the fact that there are more and more complex, expensive instrumentation systems that serve research teams and function similarly to industrial production facilities.

11. The desire to build a general scientific picture of the world based on the principles of universal (global) evolutionism, uniting the ideas of systemic and evolutionary approaches into a single whole.

12. Formation of a new “organismic” vision (understanding of nature). The latter is increasingly viewed not as a conglomeration of isolated objects, and not even as a mechanical system, but as an integral living organism, changes in which can occur within certain boundaries. Violation of these boundaries leads to a change in the system, to its transition to a qualitatively different state, which can cause irreversible destruction of the integrity of the system.

13. Understanding the world not only as a self-developing integrity, but also as unstable, unstable, non-equilibrium, chaosogenic. These fundamental characteristics of the universe come to the fore today, which, of course, does not exclude the “presence” of opposite characteristics in the universe. The introduction of instability, instability, the discovery of non-equilibrium structures is an important feature of post-non-classical science.

Thus, modern science, even in small things, cannot do without probabilities, instabilities and uncertainties. They “penetrate” the entire universe – from the properties of elementary particles to the behavior of man, society and the Universe as a whole. Therefore, today more and more people talk about uncertainty as a characteristic of being, objective in all its spheres.

For the end of the XX century. characteristic is the regularity that the natural sciences are united, and the convergence of the natural and human sciences, science and art is increasing. Natural science for a long time focused on the comprehension of “nature itself”, regardless of the subject of activity. Humanities – to comprehend the person, the human spirit, culture. For them, the disclosure of meaning, not so much explanation as understanding, the connection of social knowledge with value-target structures, has become a priority. Ideas and principles that are being developed in modern natural science (especially in synergetics) are increasingly being introduced into the humanities, but the reverse process is also taking place. Assimilation by science of self-developing “human-sized” systems erases the former impenetrable boundaries between the methodology of natural science and social cognition. In this regard, there is a tendency for the convergence of two cultures – scientific and technical and humanitarian and artistic, science and art, and it is the person who turns out to be the center of this process.

List of terms:

Pluralism is a position according to which there are several or many independent and irreducible principles or types of being, foundations and forms of knowledge, styles of behavior, etc.

Synergetics is an interdisciplinary area of scientific research, the task of which is to study natural phenomena and processes based on the principles of self-organization of systems (consisting of subsystems). “… a science that studies the processes of self-organization and the emergence, maintenance, stability and decay of structures of the most diverse nature …”.

The universe is a set of objects and phenomena as a whole, considered as a single system. In a general sense, it is identical to the term “Universe”.

Coevolution is the joint evolution of species interacting in an ecosystem. Changes affecting any traits of individuals of one species lead to changes in another or other species.

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