The law of unity "organism-environment"

The habitat of life develops as a result of a constant exchange of substances with information based on the flow of energy in the total unity of the environment and the organisms inhabiting it.

40. Law of the Minimum (Liebig): The substance present in the minimum is governed by the yield, its magnitude is determined, and its stability over time.

41. Commoner’s laws:

  • “Everything is connected with everything”;
  • “Everything has to go somewhere”;
  • “Nothing is given for free”;
  • “Nature knows best.”

42. Law of Maximum (Shelford): The prosperity of an organism is limited to zones of maximum and minimum of certain environmental factors; between them is the zone of ecological optimum, within which the body normally responds to environmental conditions.

43. Degradation of the biosphere is the destruction or significant disruption of ecological ties in nature, accompanied by a deterioration in human living conditions, caused by natural disasters or the economic activity of man himself, carried out without taking into account the knowledge of the laws of nature development.

44. Stages of degradation of the biosphere:

  • use of fire (Early Paleolithic);
  • development of agriculture;
  • industrial Revolution .
  • ecological crisis.

45. Sources of degradation of the biosphere can be natural (natural) and artificial (anthropogenic). Natural environmental pollution is caused by natural processes (dust storms, volcanism, forest fires, etc.). Artificial pollution due to emissions into the environment of various pollutants in the course of human activity (agriculture, transport, industry, etc.)

46. Consequences of degradation of the biosphere:

A noticeable decrease in the biodiversity of the ecosystem, the destruction and destruction of still remaining areas of wild vegetation, the barbaric destruction of forests and swamps, the reduction in the number of wild animals, the disappearance of many representatives of flora and fauna. As a result of all these actions, by the middle of the 20th century, the anthropogenic impact on the biosphere in its significance entered the same level as the natural one, taking on a planetary scale. Thus, humanity has become one of the main geoecological fateful factors in the evolution of the planet.

47. Pollution – any introduction into this or that ecological system (biocenosis) of living or non-living components that are not characteristic of it, any changes that interrupt or disrupt the processes of circulation and metabolism, energy flows, the result of which is a decrease in productivity or destruction of this system.

48.Main pollutants:

  • carbon dioxide (CO 2 );
  • carbon monoxide (CO);
  • sulfur dioxide (SO 2 );
  • nitrogen oxides (NO, NO 2 , N 2 O);
  • heavy metals and primarily mercury, lead and cadmium;

  • carcinogenic substances, in particular, benzapyrene;
  • pesticides;
  • phosphates;
  • radionuclides and other radioactive substances;
  • dioxides (chlorohydrocarbons);
  • solid impurities (aerosols): dust, soot, smoke;
  • oil and oil products.

49. According to the state of aggregation , 3 types of pollutants are distinguished: solid, liquid and gaseous.

50. According to the origin of nature, state of aggregation, the scale of distribution, the consequences caused, the degree of toxicity

51. By nature, pollutants are classified into the following groups: chemical, physical, biological, aesthetic.

52. Main air pollutants:

– carbon monoxide

– sulfur dioxide

– nitrogen oxides, etc.

53. Sources of air pollution:


– large industrial enterprises, etc.

54. Local consequences – the consequences that are manifested in a single small area, resulting from environmental pollution. Example: case in Minomata village in Japan.

55. Global consequences – are manifested in global climate change, an increase in the number of natural disasters and irreversible processes that occur in the Earth’s biosphere.

56 . The main pollutants of the hydrosphere: benzene, kerosene, nitroethane, isopropylanine, etc.

57. Sources of pollution of the hydrosphere: hydroelectric power stations, utilities, industrial plants, ports, ship moorings, etc.

58. The consequences of pollution of the hydrosphere are a reduction in the number of organisms living in the aquatic environment, the gradual becoming of water resources unsuitable for human needs, and cases when water is a carrier of various infections and diseases become very frequent.

59. The main pollutants of the lithosphere are chemicals that get there from the discharges of large industrial enterprises, agricultural fertilizers, and other substances.

60. Sources of pollution of the lithosphere: large industrial centers, agriculture, nuclear power plants.

61. The quality of the environment is the conformity of the natural environment to human needs.

62. Rationing of the quality of the natural environment provides for established systems of standards for the maximum permissible impact on the environment.

63. Environmental safety is a set of actions of states and processes directly or indirectly inflicted on the natural environment and humans.

64. Basic environmental standards: MPC, MPE (PDS), PDN.

MPC is the amount of a pollutant in soil, air, water, related to the mass or volume of a given substrate, which, with permanent or temporary exposure to a person or the environment, does not cause adverse effects either on the environment, or on a person, or on his offspring. MPC can be average daily (such a concentration of a harmful substance that should not have a direct or indirect harmful effect on a person with an indefinitely long long-term exposure) and maximum one-time (such a concentration of a harmful substance that should not cause reflex reactions of the human body when inhaled for 30 minutes) .

MPC in water is the concentration of pollutants in water at which it becomes unsuitable for one or more types of water use.

MPC for soil is such a concentration of pollutants that does not cause direct or indirect influence and does not violate the self-cleaning capacity of the soil.

MPL is such an impact of energy pollution that does not affect either a person or the environment.

MPE (MPD) is the maximum amount of pollutants that can be emitted (discharged) into the atmosphere (hydrosphere) per unit time without causing an excess of permissible concentrations in the environment and adverse environmental consequences.

PDN is a load that takes into account the influence of harmful factors not on an individual organism or species, but on a biocenosis or ecosystem as a whole.

65. If there are several substances in the medium, the summation effect is performed:

66. Ecosystem assimilation capacity – the maximum dynamic capacity of such a quantity of a pollutant (in terms of the entire system or a unit of its volume), which can be accumulated, destroyed, transformed by biological or chemical transformations per unit of time and removed due to the processes of sedimentation, diffusion or any transfer outside the ecosystem without violating its norms of functioning.

67. Bioindication – the use of highly sensitive organisms to detect pollutants or other reagents in water.

Biotesting is the use of test objects to obtain integral estimates of the pollution of the aquatic environment.

68. Monitoring – a system of observation, assessment and forecasting of the state of the natural environment, which makes it possible to identify changes in the state of the biosphere under the influence of human activity.

69. The main tasks of monitoring are:

1) monitoring of sources of anthropogenic impact;

2) monitoring the factors of anthropogenic impact;

3) monitoring the state of the natural environment and the processes occurring in it under the influence of anthropogenic factors;

4) assessment of the physical state of the natural environment;

5) forecast of changes in the state of the natural environment under the influence of anthropogenic factors and assessment of the predicted state of the natural environment.

70. Practical directions of monitoring:

– monitoring the state of the environment and factors affecting it;

– assessment of the actual state of the environment and the level of its pollution;

– forecast of the state of the environment as a result of possible pollution and assessment of this state.

71. Sanitary and hygienic monitoring – monitors the state of the environment in terms of its impact on the health of an individual and the population as a whole.

Geo-environmental monitoring – observations are carried out over geosystems, over the transformation of natural systems into natural-technical ones.

72. Biological monitoring – studies the state of the biotic part of the biosphere.

73. Biospheric monitoring – provides observation and control on a global scale.

74. Monitoring objects: atmospheric, air, soil, climate, monitoring of vegetation, wildlife, health

75. Monitoring by scale:

1) spatial;

2) temporary.

76. Monitoring by the nature of the generalization of information:

1) global – tracking the general world processes and phenomena of the earth’s biosphere, including all its environmental components and warning of emerging extreme situations;

2) basic (background) – monitoring of general biospheric, mainly natural phenomena without imposing regional anthropogenic influences on them;

3) national – monitoring of the scale of the country;

4) regional – tracking processes and phenomena within the region, where these processes and phenomena may differ in natural character and anthropogenic impact from the basic background characteristic of the entire biosphere;

5) local – monitoring the impact of a specific anthropological source;

6) impact – monitoring of regional and local anthropogenic impacts in especially dangerous zones and places.

77 – 80. Depending on the methods of observation, monitoring can be:

– chemical – a system of observations of the chemical composition of the biosphere;

– physical – a system of observations of the influence of physical processes and phenomena on the environment;

-biological – monitoring carried out with the help of bioindicators

– ecobiochemical (analysis of the chemical state from a biological point of view);

– remote ;

– complex environmental – organization of monitoring systems for the state of objects approx. to assess their actual level of pollution and to warn of emerging critical situations that are harmful to the health of people and other living organisms.

The integrated environmental monitoring system provides for:

1) assess indicators of the condition and functional integrity of ecosystems and the human environment (i.e. assess compliance with environmental standards);

2) identify the causes of changes in these indicators and assess the consequences of such changes, as well as determine corrective measures in cases where the target indicators of environmental conditions are not achieved (i.e., diagnose the state of ecosystems and habitats);

3) create the prerequisites for determining measures to correct emerging negative situations before damage is done, i.e. to ensure early warning of negative situations.

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