The concept of quarantine and observation

ORGANIZATIONAL FOUNDATIONS OF SANITARY AND HYGIENIC AND ANTI-EPIDEMIC SUPPORT OF THE POPULATION IN THE SYSTEM OF THE STATE SERVICE FOR DISASTER MEDICINE

(guidelines)

Zaporozhye – 2006

Ministry of Health of Ukraine

Zaporozhye State Medical University

Department of Disaster Medicine and Military Medicine

“AGREED”

Head Department of Disaster Medicine

and military medicine

Professor Pertsov V.I.

ORGANIZATIONAL FOUNDATIONS OF SANITARY AND HYGIENIC AND ANTI-EPIDEMIC SUPPORT OF THE POPULATION IN THE SYSTEM OF THE STATE SERVICE FOR DISASTER MEDICINE

(guidelines)

Zaporozhye – 2006

UDC __

Compiled by:

Pertsov V.I. – head. Department, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor

Belenky S.A. – Senior Lecturer, Ph.D.,

Ivakhnenko D.S. – Ph.D., assistant

ORGANIZATIONAL FOUNDATIONS OF SANITARY AND HYGIENIC AND ANTI-EPIDEMIC SUPPORT OF THE POPULATION IN THE SYSTEM OF THE STATE SERVICE FOR DISASTER MEDICINE

(guidelines)

Reviewer:

Chairman of the expert commission:

© Zaporizky State Medical University, 2006

© ZDMU

LIST OF CONVENTIONAL ABBREVIATIONS

Emergency – emergency

GSMK – State Service for Disaster Medicine

GO – civil defense

LEO – medical evacuation support

GSEO – group of sanitary and epidemiological assessment

OOI is a particularly dangerous infection

Content

1. Introduction

2. Reconnaissance in the focus of emergency

3. The concept of quarantine and observation

4. Measures during the evacuation of the population from the source of emergency

4.1. medical and evacuation support for infectious patients;

4.2. medical triage;

4.3. anti-epidemic measures;

4.4. features of rendering assistance to children;

4.5. organization of an anti-epidemic regime in the stages of medical evacuation.

5. Extraordinary anti-epidemic commission in case of emergency

6. The work of the infectious diseases hospital

7. Organization of sanitary-hygienic and anti-epidemic support of the population in the disaster zone

8. Conclusion

9. Recommended reading

Introduction

In areas of catastrophes and natural disasters, places of temporary resettlement of the evacuated population and accommodation of the population, an unfavorable sanitary-hygienic and epidemiological situation may arise, which contributes to the emergence and spread of group and mass infectious diseases among the contingent of the population.

During a natural disaster, ecological systems can be disturbed, natural foci of especially dangerous infections (cholera, plague, anthrax) can be “revived” and spread.

In emergency situations, the deterioration of the epidemiological situation becomes a priority for the population of the region. In these situations, it is necessary to carry out a set of sanitary-hygienic and anti-epidemic measures.

The anti-epidemiological health service plans in advance the measures that are an integral part of the medical support of the affected population.

Reconnaissance in the center of emergency

The basis of epidemiological diagnostics in disaster areas is a retrospective and operational epidemiological analysis and examination of epidemic foci.

The main method for identifying and evaluating the epidemic situation in the disaster area is sanitary and epidemiological intelligence.

The procedure for epidemiological examination of the focus includes the following sections of work:

analysis of the dynamics and structure of morbidity according to epidemiological characteristics;

clarification of the epidemic situation among the population in the disaster zone, their locations;

Questioning and examination of sick, injured and healthy people;

visual and laboratory examination of the external environment;

· identification of objects of the national economy that exacerbate the deterioration of the sanitary-hygienic and epidemic situation in the focus of the disaster and in adjacent areas as a result (destruction of structures, industrial and residential buildings, damage to water supply and sewerage systems, environmental pollution;

· survey of medical (veterinary) workers, representatives of the local population;

Inspection of the sanitary condition of settlements, water sources, communal and food facilities, etc.;

determination of the state and preservation of the working capacity of medical institutions;

detection of radiation and chemical contamination;

organization of urgent sanitary-hygienic and anti-epidemic measures based on preliminary analysis and generalization of data;

Sanitary and epidemiological intelligence should work in close contact with local authorities, health and population.

After reconnaissance, the collected materials are processed and causal relationships are established in accordance with the available materials on the type of epidemic in this infectious form.

According to the results of reconnaissance, the sanitary and epidemiological state of the disaster area can be: favorable, unstable, unfavorable, emergency.

· Favorable sanitary and epidemiological situation: there are no infectious diseases or there are isolated cases of the disease that are not related to each other. The sanitary condition of the disaster area is satisfactory.

· Unstable sanitary and epidemiological situation: individual infectious diseases have appeared that were not previously registered, or group diseases have arisen that do not tend to spread further.

· Unfavorable sanitary and epidemiological situation: there are group infectious diseases that tend to further spread among the population, or isolated cases of the disease are observed for especially dangerous infections.

· Emergency sanitary and epidemiological situation: an epidemic or a group of diseases for especially dangerous infections has arisen.

The concept of quarantine and observation

Quarantine: a set of organizational, regime-restrictive, isolation, anti-epidemiological and therapeutic and preventive measures aimed at preventing, localizing and eliminating foci of infectious diseases.

Quarantine is declared by order of the Chief of Staff of the Civil Defense in order to prevent the spread of the disease even before determining the type of pathogens used.

The organization of quarantine provides for:

The environment of the infection zone and the territory adjacent to it;

· Organization of barrier posts on all secondary routes, the movement of which is completely stopped;

· Establishment of checkpoints on the main routes, which transport forces and means to eliminate the source of infection.

The duration of the quarantine depends on the means used. If pathogens of especially dangerous infections (plague, smallpox, cholera) are detected, quarantine measures are carried out until the focus is eliminated and the possibility of diseases is eliminated.

Observation: a set of restrictive regime measures with increased medical and veterinary surveillance and anti-epidemic, treatment-and-prophylactic, veterinary and sanitary measures aimed at preventing the spread of infectious diseases.

The main task of observation is the timely detection of cases of infectious diseases in order to take urgent measures to localize them and eliminate the causes that contribute to their spread.

The reservation provides for:

· Setting up control posts along the outer border of the observation zone, main routes in order to restrict entry, exit and transit passage;

· Strengthening medical control over the state of the territory, catering, water supply, trade rules;

· Interrogation and thermometry of the population for the purpose of active and timely detection of infectious diseases;

· Vaccination of the population;

· Strengthening of sanitary-educational work.

The quarantine mode or transition to the observation mode is accepted after receiving the results of a specific indication. If the identified pathogens are low-contagious infections, the quarantine regime is replaced by observation.

Epidemic: Massive, progressing in time and space within a certain region, the spread of an infectious disease of people, significantly exceeding the incidence rate usually recorded in a given territory.

Epidemiological situation: the state of prevalence of an infectious disease of people in a particular area at a certain period of time.

Epidemiological diagnostics: the opening of specific manifestations of the epidemic process, as well as the establishment of the causes that caused its occurrence, and the factors contributing to its development.

Epidemic focus: the place of infection and stay of people who have become ill with an infectious disease, or the territory within which infection of people and farm animals with pathogens of an infectious disease is possible.

Anti-epidemic regime: the procedure and rules of conduct for the attending medical personnel and the population, ensuring the effective implementation of preventive and anti-epidemic measures in an epidemic outbreak.

Elimination of an epidemic focus: a decrease in the incidence of an infectious disease in the population, due to the destruction of its pathogen in a certain territory and expressed by the removal of quarantine or restrictions from a disadvantaged point or area.

Incidence of the population: An indicator that reflects the level of spread of any infectious disease among the population as a whole, in its individual age-sex, occupational groups.

Isolation of infectious patients: An anti-epidemic measure aimed at preventing the spread of the infectious beginning to the surrounding people.

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