Functions of modern science
|Function name||Its content|
|…||Foreseeing possible dangerous trends in the development of society and formulating recommendations for overcoming them|
Below is a list of terms. All of them, with the exception of one, are associated with the concept of “progress”.
social reform; stagnation; social revolution; community development; modernization.
1. Establish a correspondence between the types of taxes and their specific examples: for each position given in the first column, select the corresponding position from the second column.
|Examples of taxes||Types of taxes|
|A) income B) sales C) value added D) inheritance E) property||1) direct 2) indirect|
Write down the selected numbers in the table, and then transfer the resulting sequence of numbers to the answer sheet (without spaces or any symbols).
Q4 1. Find in the list below the legal relations governed by the norms of civil law, and circle the numbers under which they are indicated
1) conclusion of a marriage contract
2) conclusion of a contract for the supply of products
3) confiscation of property
4) establishment of authorship
5) violation of labor discipline
6) making a purchase in the store
Write the circled numbers in ascending order.
Read the text below, each position of which is numbered.
(1) According to estimates, the permanent population of the Russian Federation as of April 1, 2005 amounted to 143.3 million people and has decreased by 224.2 thousand people since the beginning of the year. (2) In the first quarter of 2005 in Russia there was a decrease in the number of births and an increase in the number of deaths. (3) According to sociologists, the downward trend in population will remain unchanged in the coming years. (4) Nevertheless, a number of experts believe that as a result of the implementation of a well-thought-out demographic policy, the unfavorable situation can be corrected within three to four years.
Determine which provisions of the text are worn
A) actual character
B) the nature of value judgments
Write under the position number the letter that indicates its nature. Transfer the resulting sequence of letters to the answer sheet.
A a B B
2. Read the text below with a number of words missing.
“Culture in the broadest sense is defined as (1) the organization and development of human life and its (2). This concept reflects an object that includes everything created by people, the totality of products of human activity, social forms of organization, processes, (3), everything that has already been done is being done, and even in a sense, what will be done by humanity. The culture of the life of society includes the problems of economic and political (4) social (5) as its basis. There are three main forms of spiritual activity or its main languages in culture: science, art and (6)”.
The words in the list are given in the nominative case, singular. Each word (phrase) can only be used once . Choose sequentially one word after another, mentally filling in each gap with words. Note that there are more words in the list than you need to fill in the gaps.
F g c a g
B 7. Find in the list the positions that reveal the levers of financial and economic regulation of the market by the state, and circle the numbers under which they are indicated.
1) antitrust law
2) loans provided to entrepreneurs
3) development of the system of economic education in secondary school
4) presentation of state awards for production success
5) tax policy
6) maintenance of the state apparatus
Write the circled numbers in ascending order.
Answer: 125 .
Below is a list of terms. All of them, with the exception of one, are associated with the concept of “types of administrative punishment”.
A warning; fine; correctional work; deprivation of a special right; arrest up to 15 days.
Find and indicate a term that is not related to the concept of “types of administrative punishment”.
Answer: correctional work
For answers to the tasks of this part (C1 – C8), use the answer sheet No. 2. First write down the number of the task (C1, etc.), and then a detailed answer to it.
Read the text and complete tasks C1 – C4
Society cannot do without social regulation, in the system of which law plays a leading role. Law is a part of social control, it expresses the basic postulates of a given society, based on state support. Law as a social institution is a way of regulating people’s behavior, a measure of their freedom, which is expressed in a system of obligatory social norms established or sanctioned by the state, regulating the actions, behavior and relations of people (their groups, state and public bodies, organizations and institutions) and secured by state coercion or its threat. b…c
The obligatory system-normative nature and essence of law predetermine its primary role in the social management of social life, where the objects and at the same time the subjects of such management are both individuals and their groups, as well as social institutions and organizations. Since the emergence of the political organization of society, it is the law that has played the most important role in keeping people from anti-social behavior and ensuring the fulfillment of their duties for the benefit of a civilized society. This provision objectively reflects the place and role of law in the historical development of mankind and, of course, is not aimed either at artificially belittling the importance of morality and religion, customs and traditions in social control, or at recognizing any right always and under all conditions. the epitome of humanism and civilization. b…c
There is no doubt that “law” and “right” are closely interrelated and interpenetrating concepts that it is unlawful to break off and even more so to oppose. But they cannot be identified. ( Tadevosyan E.V. Sociology of law as a specific branch of sociology // Social and humanitarian knowledge. – 2000, No. 2. – P. 102-104)
C1 Based on the text, reveal the essence of law. What features distinguish it from other social institutions?
C2 What is the role of law, according to the author, in the historical development of mankind? Explain what this role is about.
C3 The author argues that not every right and not under all conditions is the embodiment of humanism and civility. Based on the knowledge of the social science course, give examples of states with such legal systems.
C4 Explain the relationship between the concepts of “law” and “law”. Which one is broader in content? Give three relevant justifications.
C 5. What is the meaning of social scientists in the concept of “international division of labor”? Drawing on the knowledge of the social science course, make two sentences containing information about the international division of labor.
C6 Give three examples illustrating the functions of political culture.
С7 In the code of laws of Kievan Rus – “Russkaya Pravda” various punishments for murder were provided. So, the fine for killing a tiun (steward) was huge: it was equal to the cost of a herd of 80 oxen or 400 rams. The life of a serf or a serf was valued many times cheaper. Draw possible conclusions about social relations in society and ways to regulate them.
C8. You have been instructed to prepare a detailed answer on the topic “Society as an integral system”. Make a plan according to which you will cover this topic. The plan must contain at least three points, of which two or more are detailed in sub-points.
C9 Social relations
“The family is the basis of communities, a cell of their body. All the shrines that distinguish a person from ants and bees are associated with it. (G.K. Chesterton)
The main content of the answers to the tasks of part 3 (C)
|Job Type||Task variant number||The main content of the answers|
|C1||Law is a part of social control, it expresses the basic postulates of a given society, based on state support. The features that distinguish law from other social institutions include the following: law is normative in nature, that is, it prescribes or prohibits certain actions, this or that behavior; law is not a simple, random, arbitrary set of social norms, but rather a complex and ordered system of them, distinguished by its integrity and structure; law is not a system of any social norms, but only those that are secured by the threat of sanctions from the state in case of their failure to comply.|
|C2||According to the author, the role of law in the historical development of mankind is to keep people from anti-social behavior and ensure the fulfillment of their duties for the benefit of society. This role is due to the general obligatoriness of the system-normative nature and essence of law.|
|C3||As examples of states, fascist, racist, totalitarian and others can be given … ..|
|C4||The concepts of “law” and “law” are interrelated and interpenetrating, which cannot be broken off and even more so opposed. But they cannot be identified. In its content, the concept of “law” is broader than the concept of “law”. The following can be given as justifications: the right finds its expression not only in laws, but also in by-laws of a regulatory nature and in relevant court decisions; law is not only laws (legislation) in themselves, but also their action, legal relations based on them; law can also manifest itself in a non-legislative form: there are also natural law, universal human rights, principles and norms of international law, etc.; the current legislation of a certain country may also be non-legal in nature, that is, violate the inalienable human rights, norms and principles of democratic international law.|
|C5||Public law is a set of branches of law that regulate relations that ensure a common, aggregate (public) interest. Examples of proposals: The branches of public law include international public law, administrative law, financial law, criminal and criminal procedure, and a number of others. Public law is associated with public authority, the bearer of which is the state. The subject of public law is public relations in the field of public administration, etc.|
|Humanitarian law is a branch of international and domestic law that combines principles, institutions and norms designed to ensure respect for human rights, nations and peoples. Sample sentences: An important area of humanitarian law is the legal settlement of military conflicts. Humanitarian law protects the rights of indigenous peoples who are at risk of losing their identity, culture and traditions in the context of globalization. The task of humanitarian law is to limit the choice of means and methods of armed struggle, to prohibit the most cruel of them, etc.|
|The subjects of the federation are state-legal entities on the territory of the Russian Federation Examples of proposals: The Constitution of the Russian Federation establishes six types of subjects of the Russian Federation – a republic within the Russian Federation, a territory, a region, a city of federal significance, an autonomous region, an autonomous district. According to the Constitution of the Russian Federation, all subjects of the Federation are equal in their relations with federal government bodies. Laws and other normative legal acts of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation cannot contradict federal laws, etc.|
|C6||The following can be named as legal relations regulated by the norms of labor law: Employment. Dismissal. Compliance with labor discipline. Signing or termination of an employment contract. Getting the right to rest. Compliance with work schedule, etc.|
|Examples of international human rights protection include: Existence of international and regional systems for the protection of human rights. Activities of international organizations protecting human rights (UN; OSCE; Council of Europe). The activities of international courts for the protection of human rights (Strasbourg Court; International Tribunal), etc.|
|Legal nihilism is the denial of the social value of law; conviction of its low suitability for regulating social relations. This phenomenon can be revealed by the following examples: Denial of the moral values of society, its traditions. Violation of legal norms. Growth of crime and offenses, etc.|
|C7||Disciplinary responsibility is a kind of legal responsibility, one of the signs of which is the mandatory presence of an offense as a basis for its occurrence. Disciplinary responsibility is due to the commission of a disciplinary offense, which is an offense, although it is characterized by a lesser degree of public danger compared to a crime. Therefore, violation of discipline is an offense|
|Legal culture is a special social phenomenon that qualitatively characterizes the legal state of both an individual and society as a whole. Therefore, it is possible when individuals, having a high legal culture, live in a society with a low legal culture. In this regard, the public position of these citizens is significant, their activities, which will help shape public opinion, public institutions aimed at building a high legal culture of the whole society. In general, two sections of legal culture – the individual and society – are closely intertwined with each other, being mutually necessary conditions and prerequisites.|
|The specificity of the powers of the President of the Russian Federation in relation to the various branches of state power in the country is due to the need to maintain their balance, balance, which contributes to the strengthening of the entire state apparatus. Since the President, according to the Constitution of the Russian Federation, does not directly belong to any of the branches of power, he can effectively ensure their coordinated functioning. Thus, the President of the Russian Federation is the head of state. The terms of reference determine its leading role in the sphere of executive power. At the same time, the intervention of the President of the Russian Federation in the legislative process is limited to legislative initiative and the right of veto. According to the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the judiciary should be independent of all branches of government, therefore the President has minimal powers in relation to it.|
|C8||One of the options for the disclosure plan for this topic: 1) The concept of an employment contract 2) The parties to the employment contract and their obligations: a) the employer b) the employee 3) The content of the employment contract a) mandatory conditions b) additional conditions 4) Types of employment contract a) open-ended employment contract b) fixed-term employment contract 5) Age from which an employment contract is allowed to be concluded a) internal b) external 6) Documents required when concluding an employment contract 7) Registration of employment and entry into force of an employment contract Other number and (or) possible other correct wording of paragraphs and subparagraphs of the plan|
|One of the options for the disclosure plan for this topic: 1) The concept of the criminal process 2) The stages of the criminal process and their brief description f) execution of the sentence g) proceedings in the supervisory instance 3) Trial – the main stage of the criminal process a) stages of the trial b) the concept of a court decision and its types 4) Participants in the criminal process and their status ) victim e) suspected, accused, defendant f) defender g) witness, expert, specialist, translator, witness Other number and (or) other correct wording of points and sub-points of the plan is possible|
|One of the options for the disclosure plan for this topic: 1) The concept of the judicial system of the Russian Federation 2) The structure of the judicial system of the Russian Federation ) middle link c) first (main) link 4) Jurisdiction of the federal courts of the Russian Federation a) the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation b) courts of general jurisdiction c) arbitration courts 5) Conditions ensuring the unity of the judicial system of the Russian Federation Another number and (or) other correct wording of paragraphs is possible and subparagraphs of the plan|
|C9||A mini-composition (essay) on social science should: – correspond to the basic social science science (philosophy, social psychology, economics, sociology, etc.), to which the analyzed problem (the thinker’s statement) is assigned; – contain a relatively narrow range of issues to be considered, which are revealed based on the knowledge gained in the course of studying social science (answer questions like: What are the main components of social science knowledge related to the topic under consideration? What should I (on) know in order to reveal it?) ;|
|– include a clearly expressed and reasoned own understanding of the problem and attitude to it (answer questions like: Do I agree (on) with this statement? Or disagree (on)? Or agree (on) not everything? Why? my own position on this issue?);|
|– contain terms, concepts, generalizations, facts, examples , related to a specific problem that has become the subject of analysis, (answer questions like: What concepts and terms known to me from the course of social science should I bring? What theoretical generalizations should I take into account? What facts, examples can I support my opinion?Are they convincing?); be correct in their use;|
|– be characterized by free composition, ease of narration, paradoxicality, internal semantic unity, small volume, thoughtful structure:|
|· An essay should start with a clear and precise definition of a personal position: “I agree (on) with this opinion”; “I cannot join with this statement”; “In this statement there is something with which I agree (on), and what seems to me controversial.”|
|· Already in the next sentence it is appropriate to formulate an understanding of the statement that has become the topic of the essay. It is not necessary to repeat this statement verbatim. It is important to reveal its main idea in such a way that the context that determines its content and essence becomes obvious.|
|· The main part of the essay is a relatively detailed presentation of your own opinion regarding the problem posed. Each thesis must be argued using facts and examples from public life and personal social experience:|
|It is advisable that each paragraph of the essay contains only one main idea. · The final sentence (paragraph) summarizes the work. Sometimes it is appropriate to list issues that are related to the topic, but remained unresolved, or to point out aspects and connections in which the considered problem takes on a new dimension.|
|The advantages of an essay include: – the presence of brief information about the author of the statement that became the topic of the essay (for example, “political figure”, “English historian”, “public figure”, etc.); – inclusion of the names of his predecessors, followers or scientific opponents; — description of different points of view on the problem or different approaches to its solution; – the presence of an indication of the ambiguity of the concepts and terms used with the rationale for the meaning in which they are used in the essay; – the presence of an indication of alternative solutions to the problem.|
Chapter 2 INTERNATIONAL DIVISION OF LABOR
2.1. The essence of the international division of labor. Theory of comparative production costs
One of the basic categories expressing the essence and content of international economic relations is the international division of labor (MRT). All countries of the world are included in one way or another in MRI, its deepening is dictated by the development of productive countries, which are experiencing a huge impact of the scientific and technological revolution. The international division of labor radically expands and strengthens the raw materials and market base of scientific and technological progress, reduces the costs associated with it, and ultimately contributes to its acceleration.
Participation in the international division of labor gives countries an additional economic effect, allowing them to satisfy their needs more fully and at the lowest cost.
What is the division of labor?
The division of labor is a historically defined system of social labor. It develops as a result of qualitative differentiation of activities in the process of development of society.
The division of labor exists in different forms. In the course of international economic relations, the international division of labor is studied.
The essence of the international division of labor is manifested in the dialectical unity of the division and unification of the production process.
The production process involves the separation and specialization of various types of labor activity, as well as their cooperation and interaction. The division of labor acts not only as a process of rupture, but also as a way of combining labor, especially on a global scale.
The international division of labor is a stage of the social territorial division of labor between countries. It relies on the specialization of the production of individual countries.
The international division of labor plays an ever-increasing role in the implementation of expanded production processes in the world economy:
1) ensures the interconnection of these processes;
2) forms the relevant international sectoral and regional-sectoral proportions.
The theory of the international division of labor was substantiated and developed in the works of the “classics of bourgeois political economy” A. Smith and D. Ricardo. Analyzing MRI, A. Smith in his work “A Study on the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations” (1776) argued the need for freedom of trade and entrepreneurship, since, in his opinion, various restrictions on freedom of trade prevent further deepening of the division of labor between individual regions and entire countries . The destruction of these barriers and the expansion of the field of international exchange should lead to the specialization of national economies and the growth of their interdependence, to the formation of the global economy. A. Smith put forward the slogan of free trade, which later became so popular (laisser-faire).
The ideas of A. Smith received a response and development in the later works of the English economists D. Ricardo, R. Torrance and John Stuart Mill. The main achievement of the classics in the scientific theory of MRI is the development of one of the fundamental principles of economic science – the theory of comparative advantage. This theory entered the history of economic thought as the “classical” basis of the economic theory of international trade.
The theory of comparative advantage (or comparative cost of production) is based on the idea that there are differences between countries in terms of production. In accordance with this, it is assumed that in any country under any natural and climatic conditions, in principle, it is possible to establish the production of any goods.
For example, grapes can be grown in Scotland. But its cost would be very high, and the wine obtained from it would be of little use. Comparison of the costs associated with the production of certain goods leads to the conclusion that instead of producing all the goods for which demand is presented, it is much more profitable to focus on the production of any one, but requiring the least cost. Specialization in this commodity will make it possible, through exchange, to acquire all other goods on the foreign market.
The theory of comparative costs proves the profitability of specialization not only in the conditions of an absolute advantage of one country over another in the production of any particular product, but even in those conditions when such an advantage is absent.
When no commodity can be produced at a cost below the international level, then for any one commodity the excess of this average level will be the smallest. It is on the production of this particular commodity, which is more profitable in comparison with the costs of other goods, that one should specialize. Even in this case, specialization will have an economic effect. The reverse situation is also envisaged. In the conditions of a country’s predominant position in the production of several goods, it should specialize in the production of only one, in which this advantage is maximum.
The law of comparative costs formulated in the works of Ricardo-Torrens only postulated the principles of the international division of labor. J. Stuart Mill, in turn, proved two main points:
1) the natural desire for international production specialization leads to the establishment of a balance in the benefits derived from this specialization;
2) the conditions for full or partial specialization are determined by inequality in the income received from production.
As a result, the idea of a competing equilibrium provided a theoretical justification for the position of Ricardo-Torrens and revealed the mechanism of its action.
The ideas of the classics of bourgeois political economy were developed in the 20th century by economists: E. Heckscher, B. Olin, P. Samuelson, V. Leontiev and others. They were embodied in the formation of the theory of modern international trade of the mechanism of international economic relations.
The concept of political culture, its structure and functions
The concept of “culture”, as you know, comes from the Latin word “culture”, which means: processing, cultivation, improvement. Initially, this concept characterized the labor activity of a person and its results. They covered
a wide range of different phenomena. To date, more than 250 different definitions of this concept have been given in the scientific literature. At the same time, the term “culture” is most often used in two meanings – in a broad and narrow sense.
In the broad sense of the word, the concept of “culture” covers everything that is created by man in the process of his material and spiritual activity. With this approach, culture is defined as a set of material and spiritual values created and accumulated by man and humanity in the process of social activity.
In the narrow sense of the word, culture is understood as spiritual culture, that is, the totality of spiritual values, the production, distribution of these values, as well as the institutions corresponding to them.
Together with material and spiritual culture, a relatively independent type of culture is political culture.
Political culture began to take shape along with the emergence of political life and politics. From that moment began its study. Considerable attention was paid to the problems of political culture, in particular, by the thinkers of the ancient world. However, the term “political culture” appeared much later. It was introduced into scientific circulation in the 18th century by the prominent German philosopher I. Herder. Later, this concept began to be widely used by many thinkers representing the most diverse areas of socio-political thought. At present, as noted in the scientific, educational, educational and methodological literature, there are 3-4 dozen definitions of this concept. An analysis of these definitions is given in a number of published works. For example, M. Kh. Farukshin gives a critical analysis of the definitions of the concept of “political culture”, which are proposed by G. Almodomi and S. Verba, R. Carr and M. Bernstein, F. M. Burlatsky and L. L. Galkin (see: Farukshin M. X. The political culture of society // Socio-political sciences, – 1991. – No. 4).
In the scientific literature, political culture is most often defined as a set of orientations, values, beliefs, attitudes. The American sociologists G. Almoidi and S. Verba were the first to give such a definition of political culture. They “defined political culture as a set of psychological orientations of people in relation to political objects. In their opinion, the political culture of a nation is a special distribution of patterns of orientation towards political objects among the representatives of a given nation” (Ibid. — p. 104). Similar definitions are given by some domestic researchers. “The peculiarity of political culture lies in the fact,” writes, for example, K. S. Gadzhiev, “that it is not a policy or a political process in their real embodiment, but a complex of ideas of one or another national or socio-political community about the world of politics, throughout political life, the laws and rules of their functioning” (Political Science. Course of lectures: Textbook. – M., 1993. – P. 94).
This definition of political culture, as rightly noted by M.-X. Farukshin is not the only one. English political scientists R. Carr and M. Bernstein defined political culture “as” an attitude and behavioral matrix within which the political system is located”, as “a way of political behavior of a social group and the nature of political beliefs and values of its members” (Farukshin M. Kh. Political culture of society// Socio-political sciences. – 1991, – No. 4. – P. 105).
At the same time, a third point of view was also expressed. In particular, R. Tucker “along with the elements of consciousness, the content of culture also includes “recognized patterns of behavior” (Ibid.).
Which of these points of view should you agree with? To answer this question, we must turn to reality. This reality testifies that, on the one hand, people receive ideas about political life, politics, political power, political organizations and institutions in the process of political activity of political behavior. The knowledge gained by them in the course of this activity and tested in practice turns into beliefs, into certain systems of political values. In the course of this activity, people form one or another view of the political world. On the other hand, reality shows that both individuals and their various communities are engaged in political activities, guided by their ideas, knowledge, beliefs, and value orientations. On the basis of existing ideas, knowledge, people form those or other patterns of behavior.
Thus, reality convincingly shows that political culture, like any other type of culture, cannot be represented either as a set of elements of creation, or as only a “way of political behavior”. Therefore, we must agree with the authors who adhere to the third point of view. “Any culture,” M.Kh. Farukshin quite reasonably notes, “is an organic unity of the elements of consciousness and real behavior. Political culture is a qualitative characteristic of all political life, therefore it (culture) cannot be reduced) to individual, albeit very important, phenomena in this sphere of public life … ”(Ibid. – P. 105). This point of view is also substantiated in their works by E. M. Babosov, G. A. Belov, N. M. Keyzerov and other scientists (see, for example: Keyzerov N. M. Political and legal culture. – M., 1983).
!!!!!! Political culture is, on the one hand, the political experience created and accumulated by mankind in the process of socio-historical practice, recorded in customs, traditions, ideas, ideas, assessments, attitudes, and on the other hand, qualitatively a certain level of activity for the reproduction and production of political life.
Political culture includes, first of all, political consciousness, which, like all other forms of consciousness, is represented by two main levels: theoretical and everyday. This includes typical, ingrained ideas, ideas, beliefs about various aspects of political life – society, about political power, political institutions, institutions, organizations, etc. that dominate in society, in social communities. At the same time, characteristic elements of political culture are also characteristic for a given society, social community, political values, value orientations. An essential element of political culture are also political attitudes typical for a given society, social community.
The structure of political culture is not exhausted by the elements of political consciousness. Together with them, it also includes a behavioral aspect, which manifests itself in the form of patterns, stereotypes of political behavior. Patterns and stereotypes of political behavior are fixed and transmitted in traditions. Political ideas, values, attitudes and behavior, which together make up political culture, are relatively independent elements of it. However, they do not exist separately from each other. In reality, as many researchers show (see, for example: Vyatr E. Sociology of political relations. – M., 1979; Keyzerov NM. On the relationship between civil and political cultures // Socio-political sciences. – 1991. – No. 7; Political science yesterday and today. – M., 1990), they are closely interconnected, intertwined with each other. At the same time, the same attitudes, value orientations, etc., manifest themselves differently in different people, their different communities.
Peculiar components of political culture are political symbols and political rituals.
Political symbols are the expression of certain Ideas, concepts with the help of signs and objects (flags, banners, coats of arms, hymns, etc.). Symbols are a specific means of communication between people. They help them determine each other’s belonging to certain socio-political communities.
Symbols are expressed in different ways: graphics