The concept of A. Feigenbaum

A significant contribution to the development of the theory and practice of quality management was made by the American A. Feigenbaum, who is one of the founders of the concept of total quality management. His ideas were also initially disseminated in Japan. This was facilitated, firstly, by the fact that, being one of the top managers of General Electric responsible for quality, A. Feigenbaum had frequent contacts with companies such as Toshiba and Hitachi. Secondly, his book Quality Control: Principles, Practice and Administration, published in 1951, and articles on total quality management were translated into Japanese.

The quality system model proposed by A. Feigenbaum is based on control. It is a pyramid consisting of certain types of control consistently carried out at various stages of the product life cycle. This model is shown in fig.

Rice. Pyramid of A. Feigenbaum:

1 – choice of control methods; 2 – evaluation of the supplier; 3 – development of plans for the acceptance of materials and equipment; 4 – control of measuring instruments; 5 – optimization of the cost of quality; 6 – organization of a quality assurance system; 7 – testing of product prototypes, determination of their reliability; 8 – study of the effectiveness of various control methods; 9 – analysis of the cost of quality; 10 – development of quality control technology; 11 – feedback and quality control; 12 – development of a system for collecting quality information; 13 – control of new projects; 14 – input control of materials; 15 – control of production processes and products; 16 – analysis of production processes; 17 – comprehensive quality control

Thus, in accordance with this model, quality control is considered as an intervention in all phases of the production process – from consumer requirements, through design, production of components and parts, assembly to delivery of the product to the consumer.

The implementation of a system of integrated quality control is possible if there are 4 conditions:

1) fulfillment of consumer requirements;

2) top management support;

3) acceptance of the TQC system by all employees;

4) careful control of quality costs.

Formulated 4 “mortal sins” in approaches to quality.

1. Encouraging programs based on slogans.

2. The choice of programs focused on workers (“blue collars”) and do not take into account the capabilities of engineering services (“white collars”).

3. Unwillingness to admit that there is no constant level of quality – it must be continuously improved.

4. The most terrible “mortal sin” is the delusion regarding automation, which in itself does not contribute to quality improvement.

In the mid 1980s. A. Feigenbaum begins to consider quality as the basis of a business activity strategy. The leading role of quality in the activities of firms determines the development, production and marketing of products that meet the requirements of the consumer from the first presentation and function with proper maintenance with a high degree of reliability and safety throughout the entire life cycle.

Based on the foregoing, A. Feigenbaum defines an integrated quality management system as “a coordinated working structure that operates in a company and includes effective technical and managerial methods that provide the best and most practical ways of interacting people, machines, and information in order to meet consumer requirements for product quality, as well as savings on quality costs.

A. Feigenbaum was the first in the early 50s of the last century to put forward a holistic (so-called holistic), systematic approach to the process of quality formation, realizing its complex nature. This is how he defines the meaning of the term he coined: “Total quality control is an effective system that integrates all the efforts of different groups of an organization to ensure the quality of development, quality of maintenance, and quality improvement in order to ensure that a product or service can be manufactured in the most economical way in for complete consumer satisfaction. Based on this, A. Feigenbaum can rightly be considered the founder of a systematic approach to quality management and the father of the quality management system. He also realized that among all the goals of the company, top management should give priority to quality assurance.

From the standpoint of a systematic approach, A. Feigenbaum was one of the first to draw attention to the relationship between quality and production efficiency. Both in the book and in numerous articles, A. Feigenbaum repeatedly wrote that in the USA, even in well-organized production, from 15 to 40% of production capacities are used unproductively. They are a so-called hidden factory designed to remake defects, correct defects, retest and control, produce additional batches of parts and assemblies that need to be supplied to consumers to replace defective ones. In this regard, A. Feigenbaum believes that the time has come to reassess the very concept of efficiency. If traditionally it is measured by the number of products produced (or rendered services) per unit of resources expended, now it should be measured by the quantity of high-quality, successfully sold products on the market per unit of total resources spent – labor, material and financial. The recalculation made by him according to the proposed criterion showed that the real efficiency is 30% lower. This approach is becoming more widespread both in theory and in some cases, in practice, taking root in the minds of the top managers of American firms. The concept of “effective productivity” is introduced, according to which labor spent on the manufacture of only high-quality products should be considered productive.

Understanding the need to calculate the costs of quality assurance and reduce them, it was A. Feigenbaum who at the end of the 50s proposed their widely known and used throughout the world classification. He divided costs into three categories.
1st category – preventive costs (prevention costs). Expenses for the development and planning of programs aimed at improving quality, at achieving an optimal level of control and preventing situations that lead to the occurrence of defects (inconsistencies).

2nd category – the cost of assessing the quality (appraisal costs). The cost of technical control and testing at all stages of production of products (or the process of rendering services) in order to establish the compliance of quality indicators of manufactured products (services) with the requirements.

3rd category – losses from marriage (inconsistencies) (failure costs). A. Feigenbaum divided these losses into internal and external.
Internal losses from marriage (inconsistencies) – losses that occur at the company itself in the production process (or in the process of providing services), due to a discrepancy between the quality indicators of products (services) and the requirements.
External losses from marriage (inconsistencies) – losses that occur during the operation of the product by the consumer (use of products or after the provision of services), due to non-compliance of quality indicators with established requirements.
In addition, A. Feigenbaum compiled a list of cost items included in each category.
Emphasizing the relationship between quality and efficiency, A. Feigenbaum writes that “quality is the most economical and least capital-intensive way to achieve efficiency.” In a revised and expanded edition of his book, published in the USA in 1983, A. Feigenbaum writes: “In essence, quality is a way to manage an organization. Just like finance and marketing, quality has become an essential element of modern management.”

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