Tests in the discipline "Ecology and sustainable development"

No. Vop Otv1 Otv2 Otv3 Otv4 Otv5 Num pr Translated from Greek, ecology is the science of… about “home” about “purity” about nature” about “relationships” on nature conservation Who coined the term “ecology”? E. Haeckel N.V.Vavilov T.Morgan G. Mendel C. Darwin Ecology is the science of… habitats of living beings and their relationship with the environment on environmental protection about the life of living organisms about environmental protection on environmental balance and sustainable development The founder of the “Club of Rome” is: A. Peccei V.I.Vernadsky W. Shelford A. Tansley Y. Liebig In what niche was a person in the greatest unity with nature? gathering niche hunting niche livestock and agriculture industrial production supremacy of production, information and harmonization The first report of the International Research Center “Club of Rome” was called: Limits to Growth global equilibrium Biosphere-2 Biosphere-3 Mankind and environment Non-traditional energy sources include: tidal energy oil and gas coal and wood wind power and coal solar energy and gas What branch of ecology studies the ecology of personality, ethnic groups, demographic problems? social ecology General ecology Applied Ecology Synecology Bioecology The stability of the biosphere depends on: species diversity values of the equatorial radius of the planet seasonal temperature fluctuations terrain continental plate movements A branch of ecology that studies the relationship between organisms and their environment in terms of their geographical affiliation. geoecology bioecology autecology synecology urbanecology The sections of applied ecology include: industrial ecology, agricultural ecology human ecology, social ecology autecology, synecology, dedemecology geoecology, bioecology theoretical ecology, bioecology The relationship of individual organisms with the environment studies: autecology synecology demoecology simecology eidecology Ecology at the population level demoecology autecology synecology eidecology simecology Ecology of communities (biocenoses): synecology autecology demoecology bioecology eidecology Branch of ecology that studies the relationships of extinct groups of organisms paleoecology autecology synecology geoecology archeoecology Who substantiated the concept of biogeocenosis? V.N. Sukachev G. Odum Serebryakov I.S. S.A. Severtsov IN AND. Vernadsky Who studied the proportions of the body and protruding parts of animals, as well as their color in connection with geographical changes? D. Allen N.V. Vavilov DI. Mendeleev G. Mendel K.A. Timiryazev A group of individuals of the same species that are in interaction, jointly inhabiting a common territory and reproducing themselves in generations – population herd biocenosis biotope community Who is the author of the doctrine of the biosphere? IN AND. Vernadsky E. Haeckel C. Elton C. Darwin M.V. Lomonosov The term “ecosystem” was introduced by: A. Tensley; J. Liebig; Ch. Darwin; E. Haeckel; V. Sukachev. There are usually three ages in a population: pre-reproductive, reproductive, post-reproductive embryonic, middle, senile pre-pubertal, pubertal, post-pubertal pre-replicative, replicative, post-replicative child, adult, blue The ratio in the population of individuals of different sexes: sex structure of populations age structure of populations spatial structure of populations sexual relations in the population population genetic structure Maintaining optimal population size under given conditions homeostasis homeology homeopathy homozygosity homogeneity An example of abiotic environmental factors are: soil chemical elements meadow grasses mosses and lichens of terrestrial ecosystems hydrobiont populations in an aquatic ecosystem predator population Difference between birth rate and death rate: population growth growth rate homeostasis demography population density Types of distribution of individuals in space: uniform, mosaic, random island, belt, longline soil, surface, deciduous water, soil, land water, land, air Tolerance is the ability of organisms to: withstand changes in environmental conditions within certain limits adapt to new living conditions form local forms; determine the time of day influence the environment The Kyoto International Protocol is dedicated to reducing emissions greenhouse gases freon heavy metals dust sulfur dioxide Acid rain is associated with: industrial emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides into the atmosphere an increase in the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere a decrease in the transparency of the atmosphere change in the level of solar radiation shrinkage of the ozone shield The destruction of the ozone layer is caused by such dangerous diseases as: skin cancer and cataracts AIDS and SARS cholera and plague viral hepatitis and SARS influenza and smallpox Urban ecology studies: urban ecosystems desert ecosystems biospheric processes taiga ecosystems aquatic ecosystems The position of the species that it occupies in the general system of biocenosis, the complex of its biocenotic relationships and requirements for abiotic factors. ecological niche environmental regulation environmental monitoring ecological pyramid trophic link According to the last census of the world population, the current population of the planet is: 7 billion 10 billion 15 billion 4.5 billion 6 billion Ecosystems designed for human recreation are… recreational areas residential areas agrocenoses industrial zones protected areas The totality of food chains in an ecosystem that are interconnected and form complex food relationships is … food web pasture chain detritus chain trophic level pasture network Which of the following applies to renewable natural resources? the soil sunlight electricity iron ores tidal energy Which of the following applies to non-renewable natural resources? minerals forest animal and plant world sunlight ozone screen Thermal overheating of the planet due to an increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere the greenhouse effect boyle-mariotte effect warm cyclone gas effect damage to the ozone layer Biotic factors of the natural environment are: mammals of the tundra ecosystem soil acidity depth of aquatic ecosystem temperature regime of the aquatic ecosystem height above sea level Environmental problems on a global scale global local territorial state regional What is the biggest influence on climate change on Earth? emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere the ozone hole reduction of fresh water biodiversity decline release of radioactive substances into the environment What gases are considered greenhouse gases? carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbons oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, butane helium, hydrogen, oxygen ethane, carbon monoxide, nitrogen Oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide What diseases occur in humans as a result of the destruction of the Earth’s ozone layer? cataract, skin cancer, immunodeficiency stomach ulcer, hypertension, asthma liver cancer, metabolic disease Down’s disease, Alzheimer’s infertility, thalassemia How many nature reserves are there in the Republic of Kazakhstan? The shell of the Earth inhabited by living organisms is called: biosphere atmosphere hydrosphere biogeocenosis troposphere What gases are involved in the formation of acid rain? oxides of sulfur and nitrogen methane, freons carbon monoxide, nitrogen methyl bromide, chlorine dust, helium What effect does acid rain have on surface water? death of aquatic organisms flowering of aquatic life eutrophication of water bodies solid precipitation change in the vegetation of the reservoir The section of ecology that studies the patterns of interaction between a person and human society with the surrounding natural, social, environmental, hygienic and other factors is called … human ecology nature management; anthropogenesis environmental protection global ecology The main sources of sulfur oxides in the atmosphere fossil fuel combustion decomposition of living organisms nuclear power plants radioactive landfills chemical industry emissions According to WHO definition, human health is a combination of three components, namely: physical, spiritual and … well-being. social cultural ecological material economic What type of automotive fuel is the most waste-free in the future? hydrogen liquefied gas diesel petrol ethanol The harmonious evolutionary development of man and nature is called … co-evolution correlation convergence adaptation evolution What disease was caused by mercury pollution? minamato Itai-Itai jaundice in children Goiter chloracne What disease was caused by environmental pollution with the heavy metal cadmium? Itai-Itai minamato Thalassemia AIDS Bird flu The main reason for the drying up of the Aral Sea increase in irrigated areas in the basins of the Syr-Darya and Amu-Darya rivers changing of the climate environmental pollution geological processes natural shallowing of rivers The first reserve of the Republic of Kazakhstan Aksu-Zhabaglinsky Korgalzhynsky Markakolsky Barsakelmessky Almaty Who is the initiator of the Nevada-Semipalatinsk movement? O. Suleimenov M. Shakhanov D. Kunaev N. Nazarbaev A. Kekilbaev The source of what pollution was the dried-up Aral Sea? Salt, pesticides Sulfur dioxide, methane radioactive isotopes Persistent organic pollutants Heavy metals, asbestos In what years were tests carried out at the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site? 1949-1989 1930-1987 1965 – 1996 1960-2000 1955-1985 What test sites operated on the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan except for Semipalatinsk? West Kazakhstan polygons Azgyr, Taisoigan Charyn, Koktal, Bulektas Aksu-Zhabagly, Kurgaldzhin, Kokterek Ekibastuz, Dzhezkazgan, Mangystau Chuisky, Aktobe, Mointy What poses the greatest environmental threat at the Baikonur complex? falling rocket fragments, fuel spills scorched earth biological pollution loss of biodiversity ecosystem disturbance What is the danger of waste from non-operating enterprises of the uranium mining and processing industry (uranium mines, self-flowing wells, storage facilities)? Nuclear pollution chemical pollution ecosystem disturbance imbalance evaporation of toxic elements Where is the Barsakelmes State Reserve of the Republic of Kazakhstan located? Kyzylorda Region Akmola region Alma-Ata’s region Kostanay region East Kazakhstan region What type of pollution has long-term effects in the second or third generations? radioactive industrial biological agricultural anthropogenic Which island in the Aral Sea poses a threat of bacteriological contamination? rebirth Aral-Kum Loyal Barsakelmes Novoaralsk The Korgalzhyn Nature Reserve was established in 1968 to preserve unique wetlands that are the habitat of …………, Dalmatian pelican, etc. flamingos Blue bird juniper grosbeak partridge ulars What is the result of the destruction of the vegetation cover, soil erosion, their compaction, salinization, and the expansion of zones covered with sand? desertification eutrophication landscape change succession degression The elements of nature necessary for man for his life support and involved in material production are called … natural resources natural conditions commodities natural environment natural factors Where does intensive oil pollution occur on the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan? Caspian Sea Balkhash Aral Sea Alakol Markakol Cities of Kazakhstan with the most polluted air Almaty, Ust-Kamenogorsk Kyzylorda, Taraz, Turkestan Astana, Kokshetau, Ekibastuz Pavlodar, Uralsk Aktau, Atyrau The “greenhouse effect” and the depletion of the ozone layer affect… all countries countries of Europe and America economically developed countries Russia and CIS Kazakhstan The Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer was adopted… in Vienna (1985) in Montreal (1987) in Rio de Janeiro (1992) in Bonn (1983) in New York (1997) The public environmental organization Greenpeace was organized … of the twentieth century. in the 70s; in the 60s; in the 50s in the 80s in the 90s What is not related to the causes of degradation of the animal world? introduction artificial alteration of biotopes infections destruction chemical pollution of the environment Minerals, according to the principle of exhaustibility, belong to … exhaustible, non-renewable exhaustible, relatively renewable exhaustible, renewable inexhaustible inexhaustible, renewable The system of long-term observations, assessment, control and forecast of the state of the environment and its individual objects is … environmental monitoring environmental forecasting environmental regulation environmental assessment environmental assessment The objects of global monitoring include … animal and plant world agroecosystems The groundwater ground water storm drains 78. Adaptation is: the process of adapting to changing environmental conditions limit of resistance of organisms to the action of environmental factors a set of environmental factors necessary for organisms to thrive the body’s needs for certain environmental resources body’s ability to determine the time of day Specify the main aspects of sustainable development economic, social, environmental pedagogical, psychological, dynamic political, humanitarian, medical dynamic, political, humanitarian medical, sociological, legal A model of socio-economic development that achieves the satisfaction of the vital needs of the current generation of people without the future generations being deprived of such an opportunity due to resource depletion and environmental degradation sustainable development biosphere model global development political model of the world resource model What organization regulates the interaction between countries, as well as between humanity and the Earth? UN Green Party Roman club NATO International Association of Ecologists Autotrophic organisms include: green plants mushrooms birds Human insects Which document obliges countries with economies in transition to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere? Kyoto Protocol 1998 IUCN Greenhouse Gas Declaration Agreement between countries to cut greenhouse gas emissions London Protocol UN Declaration on Greenhouse Gases 1997 Endemic species include: inhabiting only a narrow geographical area preferring to live among loose sands organisms attached to or clinging to the stems and leaves of higher aquatic plants; living on all continents resistant to various physical and chemical factors Who chairs the International Commission on Environment and Development (ICED)? G.H. Brutland D. Meadows D. Forrester Strong M. Meserovich Title of the ISSAD report published in 1987? Our common future Limits to Growth The concept of sustainable development Agenda 21 Problems of eco-development A living component of the environment that can affect organisms is called: biotic factor physical factor abiotic factor chemical factor acid factor What is a specially protected natural area? nature reserves, national parks, natural monuments, dendrological parks and botanical gardens all natural landscapes zoos, forest belts agricultural land sanatoriums, agroecosystems A document used in the system of measures for the protection of objects of flora and fauna. Red Book The concept of environmental safety Eco-development program environmental law Zhasyl damu program The highest stage in the development of the biosphere, the result of the joint evolution of nature and society according to V.I. Vernadsky. era of the noosphere Sustainable development era of industrial society era of post-industrial society Eco-development What species of animals or plants are included in category 1 of the Red Book? endangered species rare species rare species understudied restored views The very first nature reserve in Kazakhstan Aksu-Zhabaglinsky Nauryzym Barsakelmessky Almaty Kurgalzhinsky When did the law on environmental protection come into force in Kazakhstan? 1997 1992 1990 1999 2003 What process occurs in the leaves of plants under the influence of sunlight: photosynthesis breath breakdown of organic matter protein synthesis mutations Types of organisms with a wide hardiness zone are called … eurybiontic stenobiont plastic sustainable cosmopolitans The homeostasis of a population is called: the ability to maintain the constancy of one’s internal state through coordinated reactions aimed at maintaining dynamic balance. the birth of new individuals population growth impact of populations on the environment population interaction with the environment An ecological factor, the quantitative value of which goes beyond the limits of the endurance of a species, is called … limiting main background vital anomalous Specially protected natural areas include: nature reserves water parks summer cottages city squares city dump Organisms with an unstable internal body temperature, which varies depending on the temperature of the external environment, are called … poikilothermic homeothermic heterothermal eurythermal stenothermal The type of relationship between different species in which both partners benefit is called: mutualism parasitism competition predation neutralism Detritus is: dead remains of plants and animals bottom silt mineral matter of the soil rock microorganisms The living matter of the biosphere does not include: mineral deposits animals mushroom spores shrubs mosses and lichens The lowest biomass productivity is characterized by: Sahara Desert Orchard Reserve Belovezhskaya Pushcha temperate steppe deciduous forest Example of an abiotic factor air humidity competition commensalism neutralism mutualism The reactions of organisms to the change of day and night, manifested in fluctuations in the intensity of physiological processes, are called … photoperiodism circanian rhythms suspended animation phototaxis polymorphism An example of an anthropogenic factor Energy companies Commensalism Air humidity Competition The relief of the locality The concept of the limits of tolerance of organisms was introduced by … W. Shelford A. Tansley IN AND. Vernadsky G. Suess Teilhard de Chardin Changing the behavior of an organism in response to changes in environmental factors is called … ethological adaptation physiological adaptation morphological adaptation mimicry biochemical adaptation Anthropogenic factors are determined by the impact on the environment: human activity elements climate meteorological conditions greenhouse effect Trophic factors determine the relationship of organisms based on their joint: food breeding and habitat habitat nutrition and reproduction breeding The factor that limits the life of an organism is called limiting dominant determining basic biotic The average number of individuals per unit area or volume is called population density aggregation population biocenosis biotope The dynamic characteristics of a population include birth rate, death rate, growth rate birth rate, death rate, number of young birth rate, death rate, number of individuals growth rate, habitat expansion rate growth rate, rate of ecological niche expansion The law of limiting factors formulated Liebig Johansen Vernadsky Haeckel Shelford One of the global environmental problems is: depletion of the ozone layer use of hydrogen fuel Internet expansion development of new technologies construction of high-rise buildings The law of tolerance formulated Shelford Haeckel Liebig Vernadsky Suess The function of the standards of nature, where any human economic activity is limited, is performed by: nature reserves reserves National parks landscapes hunting grounds An organism with a wide tolerance range is called eurybiotic stenobiotic euryphagous stenophagous euryhydric Which of the following communities is characterized by the minimum biomass productivity? tundra taiga a tropical forest steppe deciduous forest Arrange in the correct sequence the elements of the functional-ecological series: 1) ecosystem; 2) biocenosis; 3) organism; 4) biosphere What population indicator is static? population composition and structure population growth fertility mortality survival Urbanization is: the process of increasing the role of cities in the development of society and the increase in the urban population emigration of the urban population to the countryside promotion of healthy lifestyles development of communications in rural areas growth of the economy of Kazakhstan Inexhaustible natural resources include: energy of sun individual components of the atmosphere (oxygen, nitrogen) land resources biological resources of the sea land biological resources The expected global warming, according to many scientists, is mainly due to an increased level of content in the atmosphere: carbon dioxide freon sulfur dioxide phosphorus compounds hydrogen The purpose of creating biosphere reserves is: conservation of natural communities and species diversity breeding and trapping of rare animals and birds using them as hunting grounds using them for tourism using them for growing agricultural crops The biotic component of an ecosystem is called…. biocenosis biogeocenosis ecosystem biotope biosystem The ten percent rule was formulated Lindeman Shelford Liebig Gause Ollie The first trophic level is formed by producers primary consumers phytophages zoophagous parasites The second trophic level is formed by primary consumers producers predators zoophagous parasites The third trophic level is formed by zoophagous producers phytophages tertiary consumers parasites Gradual colonization of bare parent rock by organisms is called primary succession secondary succession adaptation introduction synanthropization The gradual restoration of the local community is called secondary succession primary succession adaptation introduction synanthropization What are the names of the components of inanimate nature that affect organisms? abiotic factors biotic factors anthropogenic factors orographic hydrographic Which of the following factors is biotic? commensalism edaphic orographic anthropogenic Air humidity Changes in the structure of the body as a result of adaptation to the environment are … morphological adaptations physiological adaptations ethological adaptations Chemical adaptations acclimatization A set of individuals of the same species capable of self-reproduction, which exists for a long time in a certain part of the range relatively isolated from other aggregates

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