Tests for the topic “History of Sociology”.

1. The first work in history in general sociology is considered:

a) Plato’s “State”; b) “Course of Positive Sociology” by O. Comte; c) “Suicide: a sociological study” by E. Durkheim.

2. This man became famous as the founder of sociology:

a) Aristotle b) O. Comte; c) E. Durkheim.

3. About the influence of geographical and climatic factors on the “spirit of peoples” he wrote:

a) Buckle; b) Montesquieu; c) Condorcet.

4. What law, according to O. Comte, underlies the progress of society:

a) the law of natural selection; b) the law of the three stages of the intellectual evolution of mankind; c) the law of unity and struggle of opposites.

5. This sociologist, seven years earlier than Charles Darwin, came to the idea of the existence of evolution in the biological world:

a) G. Spencer; b) K. Marx; c) M. Weber.

6. G. Spencer introduced the following term into scientific circulation:

a) a social institution; b) sociology; c) anomie.

7. G. Spencer attached particular importance to a certain social institution:

a) social control; b) families; c) religion.

8. This German sociologist used the method of historical research to shed light on the nature of the relationship between religion and capitalism:

a) M. Weber; b) K. Marx; c) F. Tönnies.

9. This American sociologist used theater as a metaphor to describe interaction with the concept of “managing one’s impressions”:

a) E. Hoffman; b) J. Mead; c) R. Park.

10. Representatives of this trend argue that a person reacts not so much to stimuli as to meanings and symbols:

a) ethnomethodology; b) symbolic interactionism; c) positivism.

11. This American sociologist developed the theory of ethnomethodology:

a) G. Garfinkel; b) A. Schutz; c) G. Marcuse.

12. He singled out three components in the personality structure: It, I and Super-I:

a) G. Tarde; b) Z. Freud; c) E. Fromm.

13. This sociologist believed that the level of solidarity of a social group affects the level of suicide:

a) K. Marx; b) E. Durkheim; c) G. Spencer.

14. This sociologist considered economic factors to be the main ones for the development of society, he believed in the historical mission of the proletariat:

a) M. Weber; b) K. Marx; c) V. Pareto.

15. The deeper the division of labor, the more new professions appear, he believed:

a) N. Machiavelli; b) K. Marx; c) E. Durkheim.

16. The natural state of pre-civil society, according to T. Hobbes, is characterized as:

a) peaceful coexistence; b) war of all against all; c) anarchy.

17. This sociologist believed that the main task of sociology is to understand the meaning and significance of social human actions:

a) G. Simmel; b) M. Weber; c) G. Tarde.

18. For him, society is a process of social interaction between people, stable forms of interaction are fashion, competition, conflict, etc.:

a) G. Simmel; b) M. Weber; c) G. Tarde.

19. “Ideal type” – a research method proposed by:

a) E. Durkheim; b) M. Weber; c) O. Comte.

20. England is an example of organic modernization, Russia is inorganic, according to:

a) G. Spencer; b) E. Durkheim; c) F. Tönnies.

21. He suggested relying on social facts and studying them statistically, arguing that they are “elements of social reality and their totality is society”:

a) K. Marx; b) E. Durkheim; c) O. Comte.

22. His teaching consists of two parts – social statics, which describes the laws of existence, and social dynamics, which describes the laws and stages of change in society:

a) Aristotle b) O. Comte; c) G. Spencer.

23. This scientist believed that the reason for the social behavior of a person is innate hormic instincts:

a) Z. Freud; b) W. McDougall; c) K. Jung.

24. He considers civilization as a product of an intellectual, creative elite, which in modern conditions is pushed aside by the crowd:

a) G. Lebon; b) V. Pareto; c) Z. Freud.

25. The starting point of social theory, in his opinion, is the law of “imitation”:

a) G. Tarda; b) G. Lebon; c) E. Fromm.

26. This American sociologist is considered the author of the theory of social exchange:

a) T. Parsons; b) J. Homans; c) R. Merton.

27. Which of the Russian sociologists denied the positivist linear evolutionary concept of history:

a) N.Ya. Danilevsky; b) L.I. Mechnikov; c) M. A. Bakunin.

28. The ability to cooperate in people develops under the influence of the environment, or rather the water factor, considered:

a) L.I. Mechnikov; b) M.M. Kovalevsky; c) N.K. Mikhailovsky.

29. This sociologist considered the individual the only active element of society, and the condition for the development of society is morality:

a) S.N. Yuzhakov; b) N.K. Mikhailovsky; c) P.L. Lavrov.

30. This Russian sociologist justified the legitimacy of women’s emancipation:

a) V.M. Tails; b) M.M. Kovalevsky; c) P.A. Sorokin.

31. Sociology points to a constant in the historical process considered:

a) N.I. Kareev; b) P.L. Lavrov; c) E. de Roberti.

32. To whom do these words belong: “Tell me what your social connections are, and I will tell you how you look at the world.”

a) N.K. Mikhailovsky; b) P.A. Sorokin; c) S.N. Yuzhakov.

33. This sociologist revealed the role of positive and negative sanctions in the exercise of social control:

a) P.A. Sorokin; b) G. Spencer; c) E. Durkheim.

34. In explaining the reasons for progress, he assigned a decisive role to the biosocial factor – population growth, its volume and density:

a) M.M. Kovalevsky; b) L.I. Mechnikov; c) N.Ya. Danilevsky.

35.M.M. Kovalevsky called sociology:

a) historical sociology; b) genetic sociology; c) positivist sociology.

36.E. de Roberti believed that sociology is necessary for:

a) optimizing the processes of managing people’s behavior; b) revealing the causes of social solidarity; c) establishing the relationship between the social, physical and biological causes of crime.

37. In what historical era did the concepts of society and the state not distinguish and used them as synonyms:

a) the Middle Ages; b) antiquity; c) resurrection.

38. Initially, sociology was called:

a) social physics; b) social statics; c) social statistics.

39. The first department of sociology in Russia opened:

a) at St. Petersburg University; b) at Moscow University; c) at the Psycho-Neurological Institute.

40. This direction studies the activities of people in small social groups, fixes attention on the motives of behavior:

a) symbolic interactionism; b) structuralism; c) neo-evolutionism.

41. In the tradition of modern Russian sociology, the approach that singles out the category as a key category of sociological analysis prevails:

a) social community; b) social fact; c) social system.

42. Representatives of these trends considered the “social” a kind of laws of nature:

a) naturalism; b) Marxism; c) psychology.

43. This direction connects the division of society into classes with the division of labor:

a) subjectivism; b) Marxism; c) naturalism.

44. The socio-economic structure of society shapes the social character of its members in such a way that they want to do what they do, – this is how he thinks:

a) E. Fromm; b) K. Marx; c) M. Weber.

45. A sociological paradigm that explores the way people classify the world around them in order to give meaning to social life is called:

a) phenomenology; b) ethnomethodology; c) functionalism.

46. Establish the presence of continuity between sociological systems G. Spencer’s theory of evolutionism:

a) structural functionalism of T. Parsons; b) Marxism; c) understanding sociology.

47. Establish the presence of continuity between the sociological systems of symbolic interactionism and:

a) understanding sociology; b) ethnomethodology; c) functionalism.

48. Who is the founder of the socio-philosophical theory of socio-economic formations, class struggle and social revolution:

a) G. Hegel; b) F. Engels; c) K. Marx.

49. In a dispute with which sociological direction theories of social conflict were formed:

a) evolutionism; b) etatism; c) egalitarianism.

50. Sociology is a science

a) about society; b) studying the customs of large groups of people; c) about social phenomena, their functioning and development.

52. An “ideal type” is:

a) an artificially constructed concept of a social phenomenon that meets the interests of a person in his contemporary era; b) general and specific in social facts; c) ideal-typical, including all elements of a real social fact.

53. Structural functionalism is based on:

a) studying the consequences of activities that contribute to the adaptation of the social system; b) studying the mechanisms and structures that ensure the stability of the social system; c) studying the adaptation of society to the social environment.

54. Phenomenological sociology proceeds from the following proposition that:

a) the perception of reality depends on how a person interprets it; b) consciousness affects sensory experience in order to obtain knowledge; c) the source of our knowledge is sensory experience.

55. The object of sociology is:

a) modern society; b) society as a whole, social phenomena, their functioning and development; c) the social reality in which a person lives.

56. The subject of sociology is:

a) people’s lives, their needs and interests; b) society, social phenomena; c) sides and characteristics of the object that affect its state.

57. Cognitive function allows sociology:

a) develop and implement social technologies; b) detect the growth of social tension and social ill-being in society; c) expand and concretize knowledge about the essence of society, its structure, patterns.

58. The practical function of sociology is related to:

a) with the development of methods for studying social processes; b) with an objective reflection of social reality; c) with the development of proposals and recommendations aimed at improving social life.

59. The ideological function of sociology is expressed in:

a) educational – ideological work, which is played by sociological research and their results; b) in an objective reflection of social reality, a neutral attitude towards classes, strata, groups; c) in the protection of class and other social – group goals and interests.

60. Establish a connection between the theoretical and sociological views of Russian sociologists:

a) N.Ya. Danilevsky a) subjectivist direction,

b) L.I. Mechnikov b) Marxist sociology,

c) G.V. Plekhanov c) psychological direction,

d) M.M. Kovalevsky d) the theory of cultural and historical types,

e) N.K. Mikhailovsky e) multifactorial theory,

f) E. De Roberti e) geographic direction.

61. Conflict paradigms emphasize:

a) heterogeneity in society; b) the need for armed clashes; c) none of the above.

62. Which of the actions can be called social:

a) it started to rain and people opened their umbrellas; b) a car drove by and doused passers-by with mud; c) the gentleman invites the lady to dance.

63. P. A. Sorokin in sociology solved the problem:

a) social equality; b) payment of debts; c) resolution of social contradictions.

64. For the first time, the scientific definition of “marginal” was formulated by:

a) R. Park; b) R. Merton; c) T. Parsons.

65. From the point of view of the founder of positivism, the main stages in the development of mankind are:

a) public formations; b) stages of intellectual development; c) cultural and historical types.

66. For positivism, the following is unacceptable as a cognitive principle:

a) the principle of revelation; b) the principle of tolerance; c) these principles are not acceptable to positivists.

67. The following levels are distinguished in the structure of sociological knowledge:

a) general sociological theories; b) essential theories; c) special sociological theories; d) specific sociological theories; e) specific sociological theories.

68. This Russian sociologist created the doctrine of twofold truth:

a) M. Bakunin; b) N. Mikhailovsky; c) V. Khvostov.

69. A social institution is:

a) the process of streamlining and formalizing social ties; b) a specific entity that performs socially significant functions and ensures the achievement of goals, the relative stability of social ties and relations within the framework of the social organization of society;

c) a spontaneously formed system of social connections and interactions.

70. In modern sociology, communities are distinguished according to the following criteria:

a) the similarity of the living conditions of people, the commonality of needs, social identification; b) common needs, mobilization, anonymity; c) culture, the presence of a system of self-government, permissiveness.

71. P. Lavrov believed that the leading force of social progress is:

a) a party capable of leading to a revolution; b) development of technology and science; c) a critically thinking person.

72. C. Cooley characterized personality as:

a) the sum of a person’s mental reactions to the opinion of other people about him; b) the manifestation of certain functions of the individual; c) the manifestation of individual and socio-typical properties in the process of life.

73. The idea of irrational non-logical action has been the main element of sociological theory for:

a) Z. Freud; b) V. Pareto; c) G. Tarda.

74. The macrosociological paradigm of modern Western sociology includes:

a) the theory of exchange; b) phenomenology; c) functionalism.

75. T. Parsons believed that there are special subsystems that provide solutions to the following problems:

a) adaptation, integration, stress relief, structure reproduction; b) stress relief, structure reproduction; c) adaptation, integration.

76. Which of the sociologists, as a way out of the crisis, proposed the moral and religious revival of mankind on the basis of altruistic love, as the main and absolute value:

a) O. Comte; b) G. Spencer; c) P.A. Sorokin.

77. The concept of “anomie” was introduced into sociology by:

a) R. Merton; b) E. Durkheim; c) none of them.

78. Who is the author of The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism?

a) O. Comte; b) M. Weber; c) K. Marx.

79. The concept of “disciplinary space” was introduced into scientific circulation by:

a) P. Sorokin; b) M. Foucault; c) A. Schutz.

80. Sociologist who identified two specific forms of social organization: community and society

a) K. Marx; b) G. Spencer; c) F. Tönnies.

Modern sociology is a multi-level complex of theories, types of knowledge that are interconnected with each other and form a single integrity – modern sociological science. Sociological research, depending on the level of knowledge, is divided into theoretical and empirical. In addition, there is a division of sociology into “fundamental” and applied sociology, depending on whether it solves actual scientific or practical problems. Thus, empirical research can be carried out within the framework of both fundamental and applied sociology. If its goal is to build a theory, then it refers to – fundamental (by orientation) sociology.If its goal is to develop practical orientations, then it refers to applied sociology.There is another criterion for dividing sociology: methodological knowledge (knowledge about knowledge) and non-methodological knowledge (knowledge about the subject). methodological knowledge includes knowledge about the means of sociological research.

Methodological knowledge includes ideological and methodological principles; the doctrine of the subject of sociology: knowledge of the methods, their development and application; the doctrine of sociological knowledge, its forms, types and levels; knowledge about the process of sociological research, its structure and functions.

Among the methods of sociology, there are private scientific methods (observation, survey) and general scientific methods (for example, statistical). Methods in sociology are the means of obtaining and systematizing scientific knowledge about social reality. They include the principles of organizing activities, regulatory rules, a set of techniques and methods, and an action plan.

The methodology of sociological research is a system of operations, procedures, methods for establishing social factors, their systematization and analysis tools. Methodological tools include methods for collecting primary data, rules for conducting sample surveys, and other specialized procedures.

The types of specific sociological research are: pilot sociological research, i.e. exploratory or pilot research, descriptive sociological research, analytical sociological research. The types of analytical research can be called experiment, point research, repeated research and panel research.

The sociological research program usually includes a detailed, clear and complete presentation of the following sections: methodological part – formulation and justification of the problem, indication of the goal, definition of the object and subject of research, logical analysis of basic concepts, formulation of hypotheses and research objectives; the procedural part – the definition of the surveyed population, the characteristics of the methods used to collect primary sociological information, the logical structure of the tools for collecting this information and the logical schemes for its processing.

There are several main methods for collecting primary sociological information: a sociological survey, document analysis, observation, testing, experiment, sociometry.

The survey is the most common method of collecting primary information. In each case, the survey involves an appeal to a direct participant in the social process. There are two main types of sociological survey: questionnaires and interviews. A questionnaire survey is the most important source of information about real-life social facts, about social activity, about the subjective world of people, their inclinations, motives, and opinions.

A sociological questionnaire is a system of questions united by a single research concept aimed at identifying the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the object and subject of analysis.

An interview is a method of obtaining information on a specific topic through a direct, purposeful, pre-programmed dialogue between the interviewer and the respondent.

Observation is one of the methods of sociological research, which is understood as the collection of primary special information through direct and direct registration by the researcher of the events and conditions in which they take place.

Testing (or test) is a method of studying and measuring complex properties and qualities of a person that are not amenable to direct, direct observation.

Measuring social attitudes – determining the general orientation of a person to a particular social object and measuring attitudes using scaling.

Methods of sociometry – methods for studying the structure of interpersonal relations in a small social group by studying the choices made by members of the group according to certain sociometric criteria.

In the situation of an experiment under controlled and controlled conditions, experimenters acquire new knowledge, primarily about the cause-and-effect relationships between phenomena and processes.

Analysis of documents allows you to obtain information about past events, the observation of which is no longer possible. Document analysis method – a document is a source containing information about social factors and phenomena of public life. This method opens up the possibility of seeing in a reflected form many aspects of social reality.

Content-analysis is a method of quantitative study of the content of social information, a research technique for obtaining conclusions by analyzing the content of the text of a document about the states and properties of social reality.

The “Focus Group” method is used to study the “assessment” of new phenomena at the “subconscious” level, so that information expressing the emotional perception of innovations is cleared of ideological clichés, standards of social norms.

Sociological methods make it possible to study objective relations through their reflection in the minds of their bearers.


Grechikhin V.G. Lectures on methods and techniques of sociological research. M., 1988.

Gorshkov M.K., Sheregi F.E. How to conduct sociological research. M., 1985.

Dregalo A.A. Sociology: Applied Research. Arkhangelsk, 1999.

Sociologist’s workbook. M., 1983.

Yadov V.A. Sociological research: Methodology, program, methods. M., 1995.

Be First to Comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.