Classification of poultry meat
By type of bird (meat of chickens, geese, ducks, turkeys, guinea fowls).
· Depending on the age of the bird (young and adult birds).
The meat of a young bird includes carcasses of chickens, broilers, ducklings, goslings, turkey poults, guinea fowls with a cartilaginous keel of the sternum, with a non-keratinized beak, with delicate elastic skin on the carcass.
The meat of an adult bird includes carcasses of chickens, geese, ducks, turkeys, guinea fowls with an ossified keel of the sternum and a keratinized beak.
· According to the method of processing (carcasses semi-gutted, gutted, gutted with a set of giblets and neck).
· By fatness and quality of processing (carcasses of 1 and 2 categories). Fatness criteria: the degree of protrusion of the sternum, the development of muscle tissue, the presence of body fat.
· According to the quality of technological processing (the carcasses are well bled, clean, without remnants of feathers and fluff, without scratches, tears, bruises, intestinal remnants).
· According to the thermal state (temperature in the thickness of the pectoral muscles), the carcasses are cooled (temperature not higher than 25 0 С), chilled (from 0 to 4 0 С) and frozen (not higher than minus 8 0 С).
Poultry products are divided into:
Poultry meat, including by-products;
· Packaged meat and semi-finished products, including frozen ones;
· Culinary products;
· Smoked poultry products;
· Canned food;
· Feather raw materials.
The sequence of technological operations
1. ACCEPTANCE – according to GOST 18272, GOST 28825 is carried out according to the number of heads, live weight, species, age, fatness.
2. PRIMARY PROCESSING
2.1 delivery of poultry to the place of processing. It occurs with the use of containers, which, after weighing, are installed above the loading mouth of the belt conveyor.
2.2 Hanging the poultry on the primary processing conveyor is carried out by fixing it in hangers and fixing it with the help of guide elements.
2.3 Electrical stunning. It is carried out for a more complete exsanguination. The process parameters depend on the species and age of the bird. The operating voltage of the contact medium for chickens is from 130 to 140 V, the duration is 10-20 seconds. For ducks and geese -30s. The contact medium is water or a weak solution of table salt.
2.4 Slaughter and exsanguination. It is carried out no later than 30 s after stunning using different methods:
External method – used on automated lines. In this case, the occipital part is cut off at the level of the eye sockets.
Internal method – cut the blood vessels.
Bleeding is carried out over special gutters for chickens – 90-120s, ducks, geese -150-180s.
2.5 Scalding carcasses and removing feathers
It is carried out to reduce the retention of plumage, by exposure to hot water or steam. Three production modes are used:
– medium 52-54ºС
– soft no more than 51 ºС.
For areas where the removal of plumage is difficult (neck, wings), scalding is carried out. Waterfowl carcasses are processed at higher temperatures.
The plumage is removed using punching machines and disk machines. For thorough cleaning of carcasses from fluff, use:
– Singe for land birds – in a gas chamber at t = 700 ºС, Т = 5-6s.
– Waxing for waterfowl – using a wax mass:
ü Voskomass KIP is an alloy of paraffin with rosin and hardened calcium oxide.
ü Wax mass VMC – a mixture of paraffin, butyl rubber, polyisobutylene (more accessible, highly plastic).
The carcasses are immersed in a wax bath for 3-6 seconds, allowed to drain for 20 seconds, then immersed again in another bath. The temperature of the wax mass in 1 bath is -62-65 ºС, in 2 -52-54 ºС.
Waxed carcasses are cooled with water for 90-120s to a temperature of no more than 4 ºС and the wax layer is removed in transfer machines.
2.6 Evisceration and semi-evisceration. During evisceration, the legs, neck and all internal organs are removed from the carcasses. Offal after examination is cooled in water with a temp. 2-4 ºС for 10 minutes and packaged.
Semi-gutting – manual removal of the intestines, goiter.
Gutted carcasses before sorting are cooled to a temperature in the thickness of the pectoral muscle of 4 ºС in a liquid or air medium.
4 SORTING, MARKING, PACKAGING
Sorting is carried out according to fatness and quality of technological processing into 2 categories. Marking is carried out by electro-stamping or sticking a label.
Before packing, the carcass is formed – the skin of the neck is tucked under the wing, the wings are pressed to the sides.
Symbol for poultry carcasses:
1. by type and age: chickens – broilers -CB
chickens – K
chickens – C
2. according to the processing method: half-gutted – E
gutted – EE
gutted with a set of giblets – P
3. according to fatness: 1 category
1. Control of incoming raw materials – inspection, weighing, checking documents.
2. control of the correct hanging – visually, taking into account the exact hit of the legs, wings in the grooves.
3. control of electrical stunning – carried out using voltammeters, ammeters. The correct height of the rise of the bath with the contact medium is controlled.
4. control of the correctness of the slaughter – visually, determining the correctness and accuracy of the location of the cuts.
5. quality control of scalding – using thermometers. Insufficiently high water temperature and poor circulation sharply worsens sanitary and hygienic indicators.
6. Plucking control – defects are determined: the remains of a feather, fluff, violation of the integrity of the skin.
7. control of the correct implementation of marking and cooling.
Technological scheme of poultry carcass processing
Delivery to the place of processing
Hanging on the primary processing conveyor
Removing a Large Pen
Hanging Head separation
to the conveyor
Leg Removal and Conveyor Reset
Cooling of wax carcasses
Removing the wax
Discharge from the conveyor
Classification of factors that can adversely affect the quality of poultry meat