Tasks of the 2017 format

1. Consider the proposed classification scheme for the types of variability. Write in the answer the missing term, indicated in the diagram with a question mark.

Explanation.

Hereditary variability affects the genotype and is inherited. It is combinative and mutational.

Combinative variability – the emergence of new combinations of traits due to recombination of genes.

Combinative variability is the most important source of all the colossal hereditary diversity characteristic of living organisms. However, the listed sources of variability do not give rise to stable changes in the genotype that are essential for the survival, which are necessary, according to evolutionary theory, for the emergence of new species. Such changes result from mutations.

Answer: combinative

Answer: combinative

2. Consider the diagram. Write in the answer the missing term indicated in the diagram with a question mark.

Explanation.

The scheme of neurohumoral regulation is shown. The hypothalamus sends “signals” to the pituitary gland.

Answer: pituitary gland

Answer: pituitary gland

3. Review the diagram. Write in the answer the missing term indicated in the diagram with a question mark.

Explanation.

The diagram shows a diagram classifying Mushrooms (according to the 5th grade textbook). The question mark should be replaced by the term “hat”, because It is hat mushrooms that are divided into tubular and lamellar.

Answer: hats

4. Review the diagram. Write in the answer the missing term indicated in the diagram with a question mark.

Explanation.

Active artificial immunity occurs after the introduction of the vaccine. Vaccines (lat. vaccinus bovine) are preparations obtained from weakened bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms or their metabolic products and used for active immunization of people and animals for the specific prevention and treatment of infectious diseases.

Answer: vaccine

Answer: vaccine

5. Review the diagram. Write in the answer the missing term indicated in the diagram with a question mark.

Explanation.

In place of the question you need to write – insulin. Insulin is a protein hormone that controls blood glucose levels. This hormone is synthesized by beta cells belonging to the islet apparatus (Islets of Langerhans) of the pancreas, which explains the risk of developing diabetes mellitus in violation of its functional abilities. Insulin lowers the level of glucose in the blood, while glycogen synthesis occurs.

Answer: insulin

6. Review the diagram. Write in the answer the missing term indicated in the diagram with a question mark.

Explanation.

A diagram of a large circle of blood circulation is shown. In place of the question mark, you must write “capillary” (capillaries)

Answer: capillary

7. Review the diagram. Write in the answer the missing term indicated in the diagram with a question mark.

Explanation.

Mutagens are factors that cause hereditary changes – mutations.

According to the nature of occurrence, mutagens are classified into physical, chemical and biological.

Physical mutagens: ionizing radiation; radioactive decay; ultraviolet radiation; excessively high or low temperature.

Chemical mutagens: some alkaloids (colchicine is one of the most common mutagens in breeding); oxidizing and reducing agents (nitrates, nitrites, reactive oxygen species); alkylating agents; nitro derivatives of urea; some pesticides; some food additives (aromatic hydrocarbons, cyclamates); oil refining products; organic solvents; drugs (cytostatics, immunosuppressants).

Biological mutagens: some viruses (measles, rubella, influenza).

Note. There are other types of biological mutagens, but according to the school curriculum, only viruses are studied.

Answer: virus

Answer: virus

8. Review the diagram. Write in the answer the missing term indicated in the diagram with a question mark.

Explanation.

The pituitary and adrenal glands are connected because the pituitary gland produces chemicals known as hormones, one of which stimulates the adrenal glands to secrete their own hormones. Thus, the pituitary gland controls the adrenal glands.

Pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH for short) is the main stimulant of the adrenal cortex. It enhances the synthesis of glucocorticoids (the main hormones that provide a response to stress and adaptation processes).

In place of the sign? you need to enter the name of the gland: adrenal gland

Answer: adrenal gland

9. Review the diagram. Write in the answer the missing term indicated in the diagram with a question mark.

The answer must be written in the singular, nominative case.

Explanation.

Two-membrane organelles include the nucleus, mitochondria and plastids.

Answer: mitochondria

10. Review the diagram. Write in the answer the missing term indicated in the diagram with a question mark.

Explanation.

Non-membrane organelles of a eukaryotic cell include organelles that do not have their own closed membrane, namely: ribosomes and organelles built on the basis of tubulin microtubules – the cell center and organelles of movement (flagella and cilia).

Because under the rectangle with the sign ? no division into two: flagella, cilia, which means

Answer: ribosome

Answer: ribosome

11. Indicate the stage under the letter G on the diagram of the development cycle of the coral polyp.

Explanation.

Most species of coral polyps are dioecious animals. Gonads are formed in the endoderm. Reproduction is asexual – by budding, and sexual – with metamorphosis, through the stage of a free-swimming larva – planula.

Planula, having floated with the help of cilia, settles to the bottom and turns into a new polyp. This polyp forms a new colony by budding.

Instead of a question mark, we write – PLAN

Note.

Sexual reproduction of hydra (hydroid polyp) occurs in autumn. During sexual reproduction, germ cells develop in the ectoderm. Spermatozoa are formed in areas of the body near the mouth opening, eggs – closer to the sole. Hydra can be both dioecious and hermaphroditic.

After fertilization, the zygote is covered with dense membranes, an egg is formed. The hydra dies, and a new hydra develops from the egg the next spring. The development of the hydroid polyp is direct without larvae.

Answer: planned

12. Review the diagram. Write in the answer the missing term indicated in the diagram with a question mark.

Explanation.

The diagram shows animal tissues. Under the question mark should be CONNECTIVE

Answer: connective

13. Review the diagram. Write in the answer the missing term indicated in the diagram with a question mark.

Explanation.

A special form of sexual reproduction is parthenogenesis, or virgin reproduction, the development of an organism from an unfertilized egg.

Instead of a question mark, we write – PARTHENOGENESIS.

Answer: parthenogenesis

14. Review the diagram. Write in the answer the missing term indicated in the diagram with a question mark.

Explanation.

Shoot – one of the main vegetative organs of higher plants, consisting of a stem with leaves and buds located on it.

Answer: Escape

Answer: escape

15. Review the diagram. Write in the answer the missing term indicated in the diagram with a question mark.

Explanation.

Simple fruits are divided according to the consistency of the pericarp into dry and juicy.

Instead of a question mark, we write – JUICY

Note.

According to the rules of answers … you need to write JUICY. Read the explanation on the exam carefully! If there are no instructions, then the system will count both options: juicy / or / juicy

Answer: juicy

16. Review the diagram. Write in the answer the missing term indicated in the diagram with a question mark.

Explanation.

A typical seed consists of an integument (skin), an embryo, and nutritive tissue. The main function of the seed coat is to protect the embryo from drying out and mechanical damage. A peel is formed from the integuments of the ovule, integuments. The seed embryo develops from a fertilized egg, has a diploid set of chromosomes. The embryo in a rudimentary form has all the main organs of the plant: the germinal root, stalk, bud and the first germinal leaves – cotyledons. Dicots have two cotyledons, monocots have one. The storage tissues of the seed are endosperm, perisperm, the main tissue of the cotyledons. The endosperm develops from the fertilized central nucleus of the embryo sac (has a triploid set of chromosomes), the perisperm develops from the nucellus (has a diploid set of chromosomes).

In the bean seed, the endosperm is not represented, the supply of nutrients is in the cotyledons.

Instead of a question mark, we write – GERM.

Answer: fetus

17. Review the diagram. Write in the answer the missing term indicated in the diagram with a question mark.

Explanation.

The part in the stem of the plant between the wood and the bast is CAMBIUM – an educational tissue in the stems and roots of gymnosperms and dicotyledonous plants, due to which the stem grows in thickness.

Answer: cambium

18. Consider the proposed scheme. Write in the answer the missing term, indicated in the diagram with a question mark.

Explanation.

Young (one-year-old) stems are covered with a skin on the outside, which is then replaced by a cork consisting of dead cells filled with air. Peel and cork are integumentary tissues. Bark – under the integumentary tissue is the bast. The composition of the bast, in addition to sieve tubes and satellite cells, includes cells in which reserve substances are deposited.

Instead of a question mark, we write – KORA.

Answer: bark

19. Consider the proposed scheme. Write in the answer the missing term, indicated in the diagram with a question mark.

Explanation.

Instead of a question mark, we write – CROSS (or, cross).

There are two main types of pollination: self-pollination (where the plant is pollinated by its own pollen) and cross-pollination.

Note.

Cross-pollination requires the participation of an intermediary who would deliver pollen grains from the stamen to the stigma of the pistil; Depending on this, the following types of pollination are distinguished:

Biotic pollination (with the help of living organisms):

Entomophily – pollination by insects; as a rule, these are bees, wasps, sometimes ants (Hymenoptera), beetles (Coleoptera), butterflies (Lepidoptera), and also flies (Diptera). The pollen of flowers is usually large and very sticky. Some types of plants (for example, buttercups) have a cup-shaped flower so that an insect that has climbed into it “dirty” on pollen, improving the pollination process.

Bestiality – pollination with the help of vertebrates: birds ( ornithophilia, pollination agents are such birds as hummingbirds, sunbirds, honeysuckers), bats ( chiropterophilia), rodents , some marsupials (in Australia), lemurs (in Madagascar).

Artificial pollination is the transfer of pollen from the stamens to the pistils of flowers by humans.

Pollination of some plants from the Pdestaceae family is sometimes carried out with the help of snails.

Animals that carry out pollination are called pollinators.

abiotic pollination

Anemophily – pollination by wind, is very common in cereals, most conifers and many deciduous trees.

Hydrophily – Pollination with the help of water, common in aquatic plants.

About 80.4% of all plant species have a biotic type of pollination, 19.6% are pollinated by wind.

Answer: cross | cross

20. Consider the proposed scheme. Write in the answer the missing term, indicated in the diagram with a question mark.

Explanation.

Instead of a question mark, we write – CONGENITAL

Innate immunity is a genotypic trait of an organism that is inherited. The work of this type of immunity is provided by many factors at various levels: cellular and non-cellular (or humoral).

Acquired immunity is a phenotypic trait, resistance to foreign agents, which is formed after vaccination or an infectious disease transmitted by the body.

Natural immunity can be both innate and acquired after an infectious disease. Also, this immunity can be created with the help of mother’s antibodies that come to the fetus during pregnancy, and then to the child during breastfeeding. Artificial immunity, unlike natural immunity, is acquired by the body after vaccination or as a result of the introduction of a special substance – therapeutic serum.

Answer: congenital

21. Consider the proposed scheme. Write in the answer the missing term, indicated in the diagram with a question mark.

Explanation.

The internal environment of the body is a set of body fluids that are inside it, as a rule, in certain reservoirs (vessels) and in natural conditions never come into contact with the external environment, thereby providing the body with homeostasis. The term was proposed by the French physiologist Claude Bernard.

The internal environment of the body includes blood, lymph, tissue and cerebrospinal fluid.

Blood is a liquid mobile connective tissue of the body’s internal environment, which consists of a liquid medium – plasma and cells suspended in it – shaped elements: leukocyte cells, postcellular structures (erythrocytes) and platelets (platelets).

Instead of a question mark, we write – BLOOD.

Answer: blood

22. Consider the proposed scheme. Write in the answer the missing term, indicated in the diagram with a question mark.

Explanation.

Instead of a question mark, we write – VACUOL.

Vacuoles are vesicles filled with some kind of content. In animals, vacuoles are temporary, occupying about 5% of the cell. Plants and fungi have a large central vacuole, which occupies up to 90% of the volume of a mature cell.

Answer: vacuole

23. Consider the proposed scheme. Write in the answer the missing term, indicated in the diagram with a question mark.

Explanation.

Types of reproduction: asexual and sexual.

Answer: SEXUAL

Note.

Transduction is the process of transferring bacterial DNA from one cell to another by a bacteriophage.

Answer: sexual

24. Consider the proposed scheme. Write in the answer the missing term, indicated in the diagram with a question mark.

Explanation.

To increase the yield of agricultural crops, it is of great importance to introduce into the soil the elements necessary for the growth and development of plants. These elements are introduced into the soil in the form of organic (manure, peat, etc.) and mineral (products of chemical processing of mineral raw materials) fertilizers (nitrogen, phosphorus, potash).

Instead of a question mark, we write – POTASSIUM

Answer: potash

25. Consider the proposed scheme. Write in the answer the missing term, indicated in the diagram with a question mark.

Explanation.

Shoot – one of the main vegetative organs of higher plants, consisting of a stem with leaves and buds located on it.

Answer: Escape

Answer: escape

26. Consider the proposed scheme. Write in the answer the missing term, indicated in the diagram with a question mark.

Explanation.

The root system is the totality of all the roots of a plant. The main root, lateral and adventitious roots participate in the formation of the root system. According to the shape, 2 main types of root systems are distinguished:

Tap root system – a root system with a well-defined main root. characteristic of dicotyledonous plants.

Fibrous root system – a root system formed by lateral and adventitious roots. The main root grows weakly and stops its growth early. Typical for monocotyledonous plants.

Answer: URINARY

Answer: fibrous

27. Look at the picture with examples of chromosomal mutations. Under the number 3, it indicates a chromosomal rearrangement … (write down the term in your answer)

Explanation.

Duplication (3) is a type of chromosomal rearrangement in which a portion of a chromosome is doubled.

Deletions (1, 2) – loss of a chromosome segment.

Inversion (4) is a change in the structure of a chromosome caused by a 180° turn of one of its internal sections.

Answer: duplication

Answer: duplication|duplication|DUPLICATION

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