Task 8. “Set-off. Class Insects»

Write down the question numbers and answer in one sentence:

  1. How many species are in the class Insects?
  2. What parts is the body of insects divided into?
  3. What is on the head of an insect?
  4. How many segments and legs do insects have on their chest?
  5. On what segments of the thorax are the first and second pairs of wings in flying insects located?
  6. What type of mouthparts do Coleoptera and Lepidoptera have?
  7. What type of mouth apparatus does a bee, mosquito, fly have?
  8. What type of mouth apparatus is the most ancient?
  9. What makes up the chewing mouthparts?
  10. What is the body cavity of insects?
  11. What structural features of the midgut increase its absorption surface?
  12. In what part of the body is the heart in insects?
  13. What is an insect heart?
  14. What transports the blood of insects?
  15. Is it possible to assert that the circulatory system of insects is not closed? Why?
  16. What are the respiratory organs of insects?
  17. Where do the respiratory organs open to the outside?
  18. What are the excretory organs of insects?
  19. Where are metabolic products excreted from the excretory system of insects?
  20. What is the main product of protein metabolism in insects?
  21. What are the features of the nervous system of insects?
  22. Which insects can reproduce parthenogenetically?


Answers:

Task 1. 1. Trachea, three pairs. 2. Head, chest, abdomen. 3. Three; prothorax, mesothorax, metathorax. 4. Mixed (mixocell). 5. Open. 6. In the upper part of the abdomen. 7. To the front of the body. 8. Transport of gases. 9. Malpighian vessels; hindgut cavity. 10. Peripharyngeal ring with ganglia and abdominal nerve cord.

Task 2. 1 – compound eye; 2 – simple eyes; 3 – brain; 4 – salivary gland; 5 – foregut; 6 – front pair of wings; 7 – rear pair of wings; 8 – ovary; 9 – heart; 10 – hindgut; 11 – accessory glands of the female reproductive system; 12 – seed receptacle; 13 – Malpighian vessels; 14 – midgut; 15 – foot; 16 – lower leg; 17 – thigh; 18 – swivel; 19 – basin; 20 – abdominal nerve chain; 21, 22 – maxillas; 23 – mandibles; 24 – upper lip.

Task 3. 1. 1 – esophagus; 2 – salivary glands; 3 – goiter; 4 – stomach; 5 – midgut; 6 – Malpighian vessels; 7 – hindgut; 8 – abdominal nerve chain; 9 – spiracles; 10 – heart. 2. Responsible for the transport of nutrients and biologically active substances (for example, hormones), due to the development of the trachea, it practically does not participate in the transport of gases.

Task 4. 1. A – development with complete transformation; B – development with incomplete transformation. 2. 1 – egg; 2 – larva; 3 – pupa; 4 – imago, adult insect. 3. With complete transformation: in Lepidoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera. With incomplete – in orthoptera, dragonflies.

Task 5. 1. 1 – bees, order Hymenoptera; 2 – red cockroach, order Tarakanovye; 3 – podalirium, order Lepidoptera; 4 – a bug-soldier, a detachment of Bedbugs; 5 – stag beetle, order Coleoptera; 6 – ants, order Hymenoptera; 7 – locust, order Orthoptera; 8 – common hornet, order Hymenoptera; 9 – housefly, order Diptera; 10 – ladybug, order Coleoptera. 2. In cockroaches (2), bedbugs (4), orthopterans (7). 3. In Hymenoptera (1, 6, 8), Lepidoptera (3), Coleoptera (5, 10), Diptera (9).

Task 6.

Squads of insects Type of development Representatives Biological features
dragonflies With incomplete transformation. Various types of dragonflies: beauty dragonfly, buttercup, etc. Predators catch flying insects. The larvae live in water, have a mask (lower lip), with which they hunt small animals.
Orthoptera With incomplete transformation. Locusts, grasshoppers, crickets, bears. The forewings are denser than the hindwings. The hind pair of legs is of a jumping type, the mouthparts are gnawing. Grasshoppers are predators, crickets are omnivores, bears and locusts are herbivores.
Homoptera With incomplete transformation. Cicadas and aphids. The mouth apparatus is of a piercing-sucking type, the wings fold into a roof. They feed on plant sap.
Hemiptera With incomplete transformation. Bed bugs, herbivorous bugs. Elytra dense in front, soft behind. They fly with the help of a second pair of wings. The oral apparatus is of a piercing-sucking type. Some don’t have wings.
Lepidoptera With complete transformation. Butterflies: cabbage white, swallowtail, podalirium. On the wings, scales, sucking-type mouthparts, feed on the nectar of flowers. The larvae are caterpillars and have chewing mouthparts.
Coleoptera With complete transformation. Stag beetle, May beetle. Dense rigid elytra, leathery wings. Mouth apparatus gnawing type. There are herbivores, predators, scavengers. Larvae with different types of nutrition: predators that feed on plants, fungi, decaying remains of organisms.
Diptera With complete transformation. Mosquitoes, flies, horseflies, midges. One pair of wings, the second is reduced (halteres) and serves to stabilize the flight. Mouth apparatus licking (flies), piercing-sucking (mosquitoes). There are predators, bloodsuckers that feed on pollen and nectar. The larvae develop in decaying remains or lead a vagrant lifestyle and prey on small insects.
Hymenoptera With complete transformation. Bumblebees, wasps, bees, ants, sawflies, riders. Social and solitary insects. Two pairs of membranous wings, some lack wings (worker ants). The oral apparatus is of a gnawing-licking type.

Task 7. ** Test 1. 1 – a; 2 – b, c; 3 – a, b, c; 4 – -; 5 – -; 6 – in; 7 – b; eight – -; nine – -; ten – -; 11 – in; 12 – b; 13 – b; 14 – a. **Test 2. 1 – a, b, c; 2 – -; 3 – a, c; 4 – b; 5 – -; 6 – -; 7 – -; 8 – a; 9 – a; 10 – b; 11 – b; 12 – a; thirteen – -; fourteen – -. ** Test 3. Malarial mosquito – a, cabbage whitefly – c, whitefly rider – b, gravedigger beetle – d, stag beetle – d, bumblebee – b, bull gadfly – a, fly – a, May beetle – d, locust – d, grasshopper – d, honey bee – b, red ant – b.

Task 8. 1. More than 1 million species. 2. Head, chest, abdomen. 3. Complex, faceted and may be simple eyes, antennae, mouth apparatus. 4. Three segments; three pairs of legs – on the pro-, middle- and metathorax. 5. Two pairs, on the middle and metathorax. 6. In Coleoptera – gnawing, in Lepidoptera – sucking. 7. In a bee – gnawing-licking; in a mosquito – piercing-sucking; the fly has a licker. 8. Gnawing. 9. Upper lip, upper jaws, lower jaws with palps and lower lip with palps. 10. Mixocel. 11. Blind outgrowths. 12. In the abdomen on the dorsal side. 13. It has the form of a muscular tube, blindly closed at the posterior end, divided into chambers with lateral openings – ostia with valves. 14. Nutrients and biologically active substances. 15. Unclosed, hemolymph flows not only through the vessels, but also through the cavities between the organs. 16. Trachems that open outwards with stigmas. 17. In pairs on the sides of the abdominal segments and the meso- and metathorax. 18. Malpighian vessels. 19. Into the intestinal lumen. 20. Uric acid crystals. 21. Built according to the type of the ventral nerve chain, the brain is made up of three sections, mushroom bodies appear on the forebrain, the more complex the behavior, the more developed the brain and mushroom bodies. 22. Drones, aphids, daphnia.

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