Surveillance procedure

It begins with a detailed study of the terrain and determining the distances to landmarks in the designated sector.

The observation sector is divided into zones: near – up to 400 m deep, middle – up to 800 m, far – to the visibility depth.

Inspection of the area is usually carried out from right to left, starting from the near zone. Having found the target, the observer determines its position on the ground relative to the landmarks and reports it to the senior observation post. He reports the target to the commander in the prescribed manner, puts it on a map or map of the area and makes an entry in the journal.

Observation by an air enemy is carried out by sequential viewing of the airspace, starting from the horizon.

Having found an air target, incl. where cluster warheads of missiles (bombs) are deployed, the observer immediately gives an alert signal, determines its nature, direction of flight and reports to his commander.

Procedure for reporting detected targets

Example 1 (by radio): “Klen-10”, I’m “Falcon-20”, at 12.30 I found an enemy tank in a trench, 50 m to the left of landmark four. I continue to watch. I

– “Falcon-20”, reception

Example 2 (by radio): “Klen-10”, I, “Falcon-30”, observe a column of an enemy motorized infantry platoon near the bridge, 300 m south of landmark five. I’m Falcon-30, over.

Example 3 (in voice): “Comrade sergeant, landmark first, to the left 0-15, closer than 100 m enemy machine gun

Sample log entry

Observation time Where and what is seen To whom and when reported
August 12, 2002
12.30 Or. 4, more to the left of 50 m a tank in a trench Lieutenant Petrov at 12.32
13.17 Or. 5, 300 m south, near the bridge, a column of a motorized infantry platoon of an armored personnel carrier Lieutenant Petrov at 13.20
14.05 Or. 1, left, closer than 100 m, machine gun Sergeant Ivanov at 14.05

Keep in mind when observing

– Objects of bright color (white, yellow, red) seem closer to dark ones (black, brown, blue);

-brightly lit objects appear closer than those in the shade;

– on cloudy days, objects appear farther away;

– terrain folds reduce the visible distance;

-when observing while lying down, objects appear closer than when observing


– in the mountains, when viewed from the bottom up, objects seem closer, and from top to bottom – farther.

The distance to objects (targets) is determined in various ways: on the map, from landmarks, with the help of observation devices, by eye, by the sound and flash of shots.

Determination of distances using observation devices

In optical observation devices there is a goniometric grid. The price of a small division of the goniometric grid of binoculars is 5 thousandths (005), and a large division is 10 thousandths (0-10).

Distances to observed objects (targets) are determined by measuring their angular magnitude with subsequent calculation by the formula:

, where:

D (m) – determined distance in meters;

B – height (width) of the object in meters;

Y is the angular value of the object, measured using the goniometric reticle of the binoculars.

Example 1

An armored personnel carrier is visible through binoculars, the height of which is 2 m; it closes one division (0-05) of the vertical scale of the goniometric grid.

The distance to the APC is 400 m

The height of some objects used to determine distances: a wooden house with a roof – 7-8 m; wooden pole of communication lines – 5-7 m; truck (armored personnel carrier, infantry fighting vehicle) – 2 m; tank – 2.2-3 m; a person of average height – 1.65 m.

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