Substantiation of the compositional solution of the model

An important condition for modeling is the artist’s impeccable knowledge of the human figure, its plasticity and proportions, knowledge of the laws and rules of the harmonious combination of individual parts of clothing and the technology of its manufacture.

One of the main tasks of solving compositions is to find certain relationships and connections between the primary elements of a three-dimensional form that would express the functional and artistic qualities of the created clothing model.

The variety of form elements and the limitless possibilities of their combination give the artist the opportunity to find new artistic solutions.

In each type of clothing, two types of forms are distinguished:

– forms that form the basis of clothing (bodice, skirt, sleeves);

– a form that serves for external enrichment of models; these include decorative elements such as a mug, ruffle, embroidery, as well as clothing details, collars, valves, straps.

The art of composition consists in the artist’s ability to see interesting images and organize individual components.

The components of the clothing composition are:

– silhouette and shape of the product;

– lines and color;

– fabrics and finishes.

Compositional means or methods of composition are:

– proportion;

– dynamics;

– symmetry and asymmetry;

– rhythm;

– contrast.

The purpose of the clothes and the intentions of the artist determines the choice of the component. Compositions and the choice of compositional means. Compositions in clothing are the compilation of all its components, the means of building unity to express its content.

Everything in the composition should be subordinate to the name of the clothes and express it.

There are three rules expressing this law.

– a single purpose of clothing and its form. The form of any thing must be expediently constructed;

– the conformity of the material is assigned to the form of clothing;

– the unity of the material and decorative finishes in accordance with the purpose and form of clothing.

When modeling various types of clothing, you should take the choice of fabric pattern seriously. The properties of a fabric depend on its structure and texture. According to the nature of coloring, fabrics are distinguished as plain-dyed, printed, multi-colored, melange, and according to the pattern, printed and plain-dyed with a pronounced weaving pattern.

Drawings can be of two types:

– specific: vegetable (leaves, flowers, branches);

– thematic: (children’s drawings, sports);

– geometric: (stripes, cells, diagonal, polka dots);

– abstract or non-objective, where there is no specific theme of the image.

Color has a special effect on the human body, its emotions and psyche. The spectrum has an infinite number of color shades and transitions, raspberry, burgundy, cherry, pink.

Warm colors include: red, orange and yellow. The property of warm tones is to visually increase the volume.

Cool colors include: blue, blue, purple and some shades of green. The properties of cold colors visually remove objects from us and reduce volumes.

When choosing a color, it is necessary to take into account the combination of the color of the suit with the color of the customer’s hair, eyes, skin.

The color scheme and texture of the fabric are shown in Figure 6.

Proportions are proportionality, determined by the ratio of parts to each other and to objects as a whole.

Proportions are means of artistic expression of objectively existing relationships in nature. Lack or imbalance

leads to the loss of harmony and integrity of the depicted object.

The proportional solution is presented in Figure 7.

Rhythm is a regular alternation, a commensuration of sensually perceptible forms and elements.

There are the following types of rhythm:

– simple, uniform;

– proportionally sequential;

– radial – radial.

Simple, uniform – this is rhythm, it consists in a natural consequence, alternation of elements of the composition that are identical in shape, size and color and the intervals between them.

Proportionally sequential is rhythm, repetitions of elements, forms and intervals between them, with proportions increasing and decreasing.

Rhythm is manifested only in those compositions in which there are elements that require rhythmic connection of parts of the whole.

Types of rhythm are shown in Figure 8.

The composition must have a compositional center. The compositional center is divided into two types: which includes everything that forms the three-dimensional shape of a certain type of clothing and decorative and structural components, cut or cut lines, as well as various details, decorative finishes, accessories and jewelry.

The compositional center is shown in Figure 9.

Visual illusions, you can change the perception of a human figure: reduce or increase, expand or narrow it.

Illusion of filled space. Sometimes it happens that the costume space filled with decors and details seems larger than the empty space equal to it. Therefore, it is better to avoid piling up details in that part of the figure, the dimensions of which are undesirable to increase.

Visual illusions are shown in Figure 10.

When creating a series of sketches, it is necessary to use such a regularity of the compositional solution of the costume as an ensemble. An ensemble is a collection of all parts of a costume that have a certain artistic and stylistic solution.

When modeling ensembles, a necessary condition is the stylistic unity of fabrics and knitwear, hats and shoes, trim and jewelry. The ensemble, like any other type of clothing, is created taking into account its purpose, the individuality of a person.

The collection is designed for young girls. The youth stand out from the crowd. She believes that the manner of dressing is an expression of individuality, character, lifestyle, social status.

Clothing emphasizes the dignity of youth and beauty, is an open form of self-expression.

Taking into account the direction of fashion, style, features of the modeling of the customer’s clothes, a collection of models was developed.

A series of sketches is presented in the graphic part.

Choice of main model

Today, world fashion follows a combination of beautiful design, ease of use in accordance with age characteristics. Clothing looks harmonious if it is matched to your style, hair color, eyes and age.

A woman is beautiful in harmony with herself and the world around her. The customer likes herself and knows what others like.

From a series of sketches, a women’s jacket of a semi-adjacent silhouette with a central fastener was chosen.

Shelf with patch pockets, breast recesses and relief from the armhole to the bottom of the product.

The sleeve is set-in, two-sutural.

A back with shoulder recesses, and reliefs from an armhole to a bottom of a product.

170.0
Growth R
Half neck ssh 17.7
Half bust first Cr1 42.9
Half bust second Cr2 46.4
Half bust third Cr3 44.0
Half waist St 33.8
Semi circumference of the hips Sat 48.0
First chest width Shg1 16.5
Second chest width Shg2 23.5
Back waist length second Dts2 42.7
Waist length front second Dtp2 43.2
chest height second Vg2 25.4
Armhole height back second Vpr.z.2 20.9
Shoulder height oblique VPK 42.6
Back width Shs 17.3
Shoulder girth Op 27.5
Shoulder Width Shp
Length of the product Di 147.5

Development task

Item Name: Dress

Silhouette: fitted

Fit: seam at the waist, sleeveless

Size: individual figure 170-89-98

Type of fabric: jersey

Design features: detachable along the waist line, with a yoke, chest darts, reliefs come out of the armhole to the waist line and from the waist to the hips, the neck is a boat, a hidden zipper in the central seam.

Design part

2.1 Rationale for the design method

Currently, there are various systems and methods for designing clothes.

• modeling method (tattoo)

• calculation and graphic in the form of various design methods

• engineering methods for obtaining structures based on the development of the surface of a mannequin or a finished sample.

The dummy method consists in the fact that the product is directly formed on the figure of a person or a mannequin.

The dimensions and shape of the parts are obtained by pinning mock-up fabric, paper or base material onto a mannequin or figure. A tattoo helps to get a real idea of the shape of the product being designed, to outline the locations of constructive and decorative lines in the model.

There are three types of tattoos:

• The first way is to tattoo individual pieces of mock-up fabric. The size of the pieces depends on the size and shape of the parts of the product.

• the second method is combined, that is, the basic basis of the product is used, and when tattooed, the shape of the bodice, skirt, sleeve, collar is changed in the part where it is required by the model.

• the third way of tattooing – a new form of the product is created on the basis of a whole piece of mock-up fabric or fabric intended for making a model. Such a tattoo is performed, as a rule, on a human figure and requires great skill, experience and knowledge from the performer.

This method is used by fashion designers when creating runway, exclusive models and historical costumes. It can also be used to develop designs for complex cuts of clothing or its individual parts.

The most widely used in the clothing industry is the calculation and graphical method. When applying this method, the development of the model is carried out on the basis of measurements of the human figure and the corresponding increments, by calculating the main design points using the formulas and graphical construction of the design drawing. This means that at first there was a successful product design worked out in the process of repeated reproduction, and then it was recorded for further reproduction in the form of a sequence of calculation formulas and graphic techniques for constructing a drawing.

Calculation formulas are established on the basis of measurements of the human figure. These formulas allow you to determine the individual dimensions of the structural parts and the position of the characteristic points of the contours of the parts.

The magnitude of the increase is also taken into account, which distinguishes the size of clothing from the size of the human body in a particular area. The increments can be changed according to the type of product, material, silhouette and cut.

An analysis of the graphic techniques used in a single design method showed that the following elements of construction and design of structural details can be conditionally distinguished:

• drawing mutually perpendicular and parallel lines;

• determination of the position of drawing points by the serif method;

• registration of curvilinear sections of the contours with the use of curved curves and radiography.

A distinctive feature of the unified design method is the preliminary design calculation. As a result, the width of individual sections along the chest line is determined, taking into account the distribution of gains.

The calculation-analytical method is the most accurate when transferring the shape of the human body to the plane, constantly developing and improving.

In recent years, the use of specialized computer-aided design systems (CAD) has become increasingly active in clothing design. This is due to the fact that during the design preparation of mass production of clothing, labor-intensive work is performed that involves the use of constant initial data.

So, modern industrial systems for preparing fabrics for cutting include the construction of all types of patterns, the gradation of patterns for all recommended sizes and heights, and the layout of patterns on the material.

The development of the design of a new model (calculation and construction of a design drawing) in industrial CAD is still quite rare. This is explained by the fact that there are no effective methods for obtaining a structure on a computer yet, but scientific research in this direction is being actively conducted.

One of the most interesting approaches is the use of three-dimensional design to obtain a product design based on the unfolded surface of a mannequin of a typical or volume-specified clothing surface. The construction of developments of such complex non-developable surfaces, which is the surface of the human body, is a difficult task, but it can be solved with the help of a computer. the complexity is caused by the fact that the fabric has a mesh structure and, located on a curved surface, forms a shape according to its own laws.

For the development of this kit, a single design method was chosen, since it allows quite accurately transferring the shape of the human body to the plane. With this method, you can realize any ideas of a fashion designer. It does not require special skills and sophisticated equipment. Building a product design does not take much time and allows you to take into account all the features of the figure. Also, an important role is played by the fact that with changes in fashion, the principle of constructing structures does not change, but only the magnitude of the increments changes.

Selection and justification of increases

Clothing of various types in some areas fits snugly to the body, in others it is loose. Areas of the body where clothing fits snugly to the body are called support. According to the location of the supporting surface, clothing is divided into shoulder and waist.

Shoulder clothing rests on the shoulder girdle. For waist clothing, the reference surface is the area of the body from the waist line to the upper border of the hips and abdomen.

Air gaps are formed between the inner surface of clothing and the human body. Moreover, in areas located below the reference, the gaps can be larger than in the reference. Gaps are necessary to ensure freedom of breathing, movement, normal human activity, as well as to create a silhouette shape of the product.

Product dimensions design larger than human body dimensions. This difference is called the free fit allowance. The allowance for free fit in each section can be considered as consisting of two parts: the minimum necessary increase and the decorative and constructive increase.

The minimum necessary increase is necessary to ensure freedom of breathing, movement, creates a certain air gap to regulate heat transfer, skin respiration. The amount of this increase depends on the type and purpose of clothing (casual, sports, corsetry), extensibility of the material. It is determined by changes in body size during breathing and movement. For certain types of clothing, it is permanent.

Decorative and constructive increase depends on the silhouette of the product, composition and fashion in general. This increase almost always requires clarification when looking for the volume and shape of the product in the process of trying on. It is divided into two groups:

• Group 1 – additions to the details of the cut to create the shape and silhouette of clothing, they are included in the allowances for free fitting.

• Group 2 – this is an increase in folds, gathers, tucks and other decorative elements. They do not belong to a specific basic structure.

Depending on the direction of fashion for the leading silhouettes of the season, the central modeling organizations give recommendations on the amount of allowance for a loose fit for the main types of shoulder and waist clothing. In the process of designing new models, a variety of forms is achieved, first of all, by choosing different types of additions and their combinations.

When calculating the design drawing, allowances for free fit are given in the following areas. Increases Pshg, Pvg, Pvpk depend on the type of product and material. The greater the thickness of the material, the greater the value of these increments.

The main increase, which determines the silhouette shape of the product, is an increase in the width of the product along the chest line (Pg).

In order to maintain the same visual perception of a product of a certain shape on figures of various sizes and heights, it is recommended to increase the increase by 0.5 cm for figures of small sizes and tall ones and decrease by 0.5 cm for figures with a large chest girth and short ones by every 4 cm. size and 6 cm height.

In products of raglan cut, one-piece sleeve and others for the same silhouette, the increase in the chest increases by 1-2 cm.

The choice of increments also depends on the thickness of the fabric. The thinner the fabric, the smaller the increase within the silhouette shape, and vice versa. For products with insulating pads, take a smaller value of Pg and add the value 3h to it (h is the thickness of the insulating pad, see).

When constructing a design drawing, sometimes the increase in the width of the back, armhole and front is not set, but the percentage distribution of the total increase along the chest line (Pg) in these areas is used. This distribution is influenced by the type and purpose of the product, gender and age and fashion direction.

Allowances for free fit along the width of the product at the level of the waist (Wt) and hips (Pb) are closely related to the silhouette shape of the product and are determined by the model. These increases can be calculated depending on the value of Pg.

Allowances for a loose fit to the circumference of the shoulder (Pop) depend on the shape of the sleeve and the type of product.

In addition to constructive additions, when calculating some clothing parameters, industrial methods of recent years use technological allowances for shrinkage and shrinkage. These allowances take into account changes in the dimensions of parts along the length and width in the technological processes of making clothes. Usually there is a decrease in length and, to a lesser extent, parts after wet heat treatment (WHT), after thermal duplication (TD) and grinding of parts. The values of these allowances depend on the shrinkage ability of the warp and weft materials.

To calculate them, it is necessary either to preliminarily conduct experimental tests of the shrinkage ability of fabrics from HTO and TD, or to use the price list characteristics of fabrics.

The increments required in the development of the design of the designed model are presented in Table 2.1.

2.1 The amount of increments required when developing the design of the designed model

Name of increase Symbol for increments The amount of increase recommended by the fashion direction, cm The amount of increase in the design, cm
Increase at chest level Pg 4.0-5.0 5.0
Gain at the hips Pb 5.0-6.0 5.0
Gain at the waist Fri 2.0-3.0 2.0
Back width extension Pshs 1.0-1.4 0.5
Increase in shelf width Pshp 0.5-0.8
Increase in armhole width Psh.pr 4.0-5.0 4.5
Increase in neck width Psh.gor. 0.5-1.0 0.5
Increase in armhole freedom Pspr 1.0-2.5 2.0
Back length extension Pdts 0.7-1.0 1.0

Model design development

The development of a design drawing is carried out according to calculations using measurements of a typical figure (table 1.1), taking into account the allowances (table 2.1), and its preliminary calculation is preceded by, presented in (table 2.2)

Table 2.2 Preliminary calculation of the design drawing

Drawing area Designation of the site on the drawing Distribution of Cr3 in sections of the drawing, cm Distribution of Pr by sections of the drawing, cm Plot size, cm
Chest width gG3(GG3) Cr3=44.5 Pg=5 49.5
1 back width gG1(GG1) Ws=17.5 Pshs=0.5
2 Armhole width G1G4 Spr=6 Psh.pr u003d 4.5 10.5
3 Front width (shelves) G3G4 Wg2=21 Pshp=0

Shpr u003d Cr3-(Ws + Shg2) u003d 44.5- (17.5 + 21) u003d 6

Shg2=Shg1+(Sg2-Sg1)=17.0+(46.5-42.5)=21

Psh.pr u003d Pg-(Pshs u003d Pshp) u003d 5- (0.5 + 0) u003d 4.5

The basic calculation of the structure and the introduction of model changes are presented in Table 2.3

Table 2.3 Basic calculation of the design drawing

Drawing area Designation of the site on the drawing Calculation formula Calculation, cm Plot size, cm
Blade level AoU 0.4•Dts2 0.4•42.5
chest level AoG Vprz2 + Pspr 19.5+2 21.5
waist level AoT Dts2+Pdts 42.5+1 43.5
hip level TB 0.5Dts2-2cm 0.5•42.5-2 19.2
Bottom level And he Di+Pdts 146.5+1 147.5
Back width AoA Shs + Pshs 17.5+0.5
Shelf width a 1 a 2 Shg1+(Sg2-Sg1)+Pshp 17+(46.5-42.5)+0
Armhole Width aa 2 Aoa1-(Aoa+a1 a2) 49.5-(18+21) 10.5
Back neck width A0A2 Ssh/3+Pshgs 18.5/3+1 7.1
Chest width Aoa1 Cr3+Pg 44.5+5 49.5
Back width Aoah Shs+Pshs 17.5+0.5
Backrest calculation
Back neck depth AoA AoA2/3 + Pvgs 7.1/3+0 2.3
Retraction of the center line of the back TT1 1-1.5
Product width along the chest line YY3 Cr3+Pg 44.5+5 49.5
Front width G3G4 Shg2+(Sg2-Sg3) 17.0+(46.5-42.5)
Armhole line design G1P3 G1Y2 1/3G1P2+2 0.2*G1G4+0.5 1/3*5.2+2 0.5*10.5 7.3 5.2
The position of the shoulder point P1 K1 K2 A2P1=Shp+Pvyt+Ppos T1G1=Shp+Vpk+Pvpk 42+1 14+2+0
Making a side cut line B1B2 gG2+0~1.0 23+1
Shelf calculation
Descent at the waistline Т3Т8 1.0 1.0
The position of the highest point of the neck T8A3 Dtp2+Pdtp 44+1
Shelf neck width A31A4 AoA2 18.5/3+1.3 7.4
Shelf neck depth A31A5 A31A4+1.0 7.4+1 8.4
Armhole line design G4P4 G4P6 G4Y2 G1P2-1.0 G4P4/3 G4G1*0.5 16-1 15/3 0.5*10.4 5.2
Shoulder end position P6P4 A9P5 P6P4 Shp
Underline Position Т8Н31 Т8Н1=1 1.0 1.0
Shelf width at the hips B3B4 (Sat+Fb)-B1B2 (49+3)-24
Determination of the total undercut calculation ΣB 2*(Cr2-Cr1)+0 2*(46.5-42.5)+0
Total solution of tucks Σside to Σz to Σper to 0.5*Σv 0.3*Σv 0.2*Σv 0.5*8 0.3*8 0.2*8 2.4 1.6

Table 2.4 Introduction of model features

Site name Designation on the drawing Size, cm
Back: Back neck A2g` 22.5
Barrel back G2T5=T5B2 G2T21=T21B2 T5T21 24=24 21=21
Shelf: Coquette A4 A5` P5` P61=A5A51 P61P51 A4A5 11=11
Barrel G2T61=T61B4 G2T41=T41B4 T61T41 25=25 21=21

Development of drawings of patterns

A template is a template made of cardboard, paper or tin, which is used when cutting a product, determines the norms for the consumption of materials, and carries out chalking of grooves, folds and other decorative lines.

To cut a product, you must first make or build patterns of structural details (sometimes patterns are called templates). Before proceeding with the construction of patterns, on the design drawing of any product, the mating of the parts of the product at the points of their connection is checked, both in terms of configuration and absolute values of the connection length. If necessary, the constructive lines are adjusted.

Patterns are basic, derivative and auxiliary.

The main patterns include patterns of parts from the base material: shelves, backs, upper and lower parts of the sleeve, lower collar, front and back panels of skirts, front and back halves of trousers, etc.

Derived patterns include patterns of product parts that serve to process the edges of parts (selection, turning, upper collar, belt of a skirt and trousers, etc.); patterns of functional, decorative and decorative parts and elements of the model (flaps, leaflets, patch pockets, straps, etc.); patterns of parts from lining materials (patterns for lining the back and front, upper and lower parts of the sleeve, skirt, vest, etc.); patterns of parts from cushioning material (patterns for lining in the collar, in the sides of the shelves, etc.) and patterns from duplicating cushioning material (patterns for duplicating padding in the front of the jacket, etc.).

Derivative patterns are built according to the main patterns.

Auxiliary patterns include patterns for marking the locations of pockets, darts, folds, loops and buttons, for trimming the lapel and side, bottom of the product, lower collar, etc.

The composition of the technical documentation for the model of clothing includes patterns – the originals and patterns-standards.

Patterns-originals are patterns that fully correspond to the original sample of the product model for the base size and are intended for the reproduction of patterns.

Patterns-standards are patterns obtained from original patterns by gradation for all sizes and growth of the recommended weight and age group and are intended for the manufacture of samples-standards of garments and for checking the accuracy and quality of working patterns.

Working patterns are patterns made according to standard patterns and designed to perform layouts, sketch them or make stencils and to check the quality of the cut.

Table 2.6 Specification of patterns and cut details

Number and name of cut details Number of details Note
in patterns in cut
Main fabric Back center part Side part Shelf: Yoke Center part Side part fit into the fold fit into the fold fit into the fold
Lining Back Shelf

Technological part

3.1 Specifications for layout, cutting and rationing of fabric

When laying out the patterns on the fabric, it is necessary to take into account the direction of the pile, the pile, the pattern of the fabric, the direction of the warp and weft threads, the allowable extensions and deviations from the patterns along the cuts of the parts.

On pile fabrics, as well as on fabrics that have a different shade in different directions, all the details of the products (with the exception of facings and the lower collar) are cut out, placing the patterns in one direction as follows.

On pile fabrics like plush, semi-velvet, velveteen cord, velveteen rib, the patterns are laid in such a way that the pile is welded from the bottom up of the product. In this case, the fabric in the product has a matte finish. The pile of embossed plush, which does not have a specific direction, can be directed both from bottom to top and from top to bottom, while the details on the fabric are laid out in one direction.

In products made of fabrics such as a bike with a pronounced pile and made of thin cotton fabrics, such as suede, velveteen, the pile should be directed from top to bottom.

On fabrics with a slightly pronounced pile, as well as on fabrics that give a different shade in different directions, all the details of one product are laid out in one direction.

On fabrics that do not have a pile or shade, on plain-dyed, striped and checkered fabrics with a symmetrical pattern, patterns can be laid out in opposite directions.

Table 3.1 Seam allowances

Name of parts and their sections The amount of allowances for seams and stocks when cutting, cm The size of the seams in finished form, cm
Back center section:
-shoulder cut 1.5 1.0
– armhole cut 1.0 1.0
-slice of barrels 1.5 1.0
– bottom cut 3.0 2.5
– middle cut 1.0 1.0
– cut neck 0.5 0.5
Side part:
– side cut 1.5 1.0
– sewing cut to the back 1.0 1.0
Shelf:
-yoke 1.0 1.0
-shoulder cut 1.5 1.0
– cut neck 0.5 0.5
-cut stitching to the shelf 1.0 1.0
– armhole cut 1.0 1.0
Central part:
– armhole cut 0.5 0.5
-cut stitching to the yoke 1.0 1.0
– bottom cut 3.0 2.5
-slitting the barrel 1.5 1.0
Barrel:
– side cut 1.5 1.0
-cut stitching to the shelf 1.0 1.0

Justification of the manufacturability of the design

In accordance with the fact that the product was manufactured, on a machine of class 1022m and class 5A, the following processing was selected:

– to reduce the thickness in the seams of the product, stitched seams were used in the ironing of the sections.

– due to the barrels on the back and shelf and a semi-adjacent silhouette, on the shelf and back, the product fits on the figure, which reduced the formation of the part during the WTO.

3.3 Selection and justification of processing methods

The quality of the manufactured product depends on the correctly chosen processing method. The processing of the product includes: high-quality seams, wet-heat treatment and assembly of parts.

The key to high-quality tailoring of a product is the correctly chosen processing method. It includes accurate, high-quality execution of seams, wet-heat treatment and assembly of the product.

The feature of the technological processing of the manufactured model includes:

– seam allowances for sewing the middle and side seams, -1.0 cm;

– allowances for turning seams along all cuts – 1.0 cm;

– allowances for stitching seams – 1.0 cm;

– when performing stitching operations, the ends of the lines should be fixed with a reverse machine line, the length of which is 0.5-1.0 cm;

–when processing the product, follow the sequence, which depends on the design of the product.

The choice of methods for processing nodes is presented in the form of a diagram in the PP on an A3 sheet.

One of the main stages in the manufacture of a product is its fitting on the figure of the customer.

During the first fitting, the balance of the product, the length, the correctness of the basting of the side seams, the coincidence of the notches are specified.

During the second fitting, the cutter checks the length of the product. The quality of the product largely depends on the degree of implementation of wet-heat treatment. It is performed with an iron through a damp iron until moisture is completely removed, using curly pads.

Characteristics of the recommended equipment

Table 3.2 Characteristics of recommended equipment

Name and purpose of equipment Class, manufacturer a brief description of
The machine is designed for overcasting of all types of modern materials. JUKI MO-735 2131415 Thread overlock 2- and 3-needle flatlock stitch Rolled stitch Differential 15,000 stitches per minute Presser foot pressure dial
Electronic household sewing machine for all kinds of modern materials 1022 M The machine is designed for sewing underwear, suit and coat fabrics from natural and artificial fibers with two thread lock stitch in one line
Wet heat treatment. Iron iron is to move it from right to left on a flat surface or, leaving it for a while in one place, then sequentially transferring it to another place. Thus, the seams are ironed along the bottom of the clothes, folds so that they do not stretch and retain their shape.

Sources used

1 GOST 2.195-95 ESKD: General requirements for text documents.

GOST 3.104-65 ESKD: Main inscriptions.

GOST 3.301-63 ESKD: Formats.

GOST 2.304-61 ESKD: Drawing fonts.

GOST 3.109-73 ESKD: Basic requirements for drawings.

GOST 2.303-65 ESKD: Lines

7 GOST 2.316-63 ESKD: Rules for applying inscriptions, technical requirements and tables on drawings.

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9 Amirova E.K., Trukhanova A.T., Sakulina O.V., Sakulina B.S. Sewing technology. – M .: Publishing Center “Academy”, 2006-480.

10 Blank A.F., Fomina Z.M., Design and modeling of women’s clothing. – M.: Legprombytizdat, 1990.-256p.

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12 Grinshpan I.Ya. Designing men’s clothing according to individual orders of the population. – M .: Light and food industry, 1982.-208s.

13 Erzenkova N.V. Women’s clothing in detail.-Mn.: Polymya, 1990.-320s.

14 Ermakov A.S. Equipment for sewing enterprises. _M.: Publishing Center “Academy”, 2004.-432p.

15 Zavakova L.N. Cutter of women’s outerwear.-Rsotov on Don: “Phoenix”, 2001.-320s.

16 Ivanchenko N.S. Sewing technology. – Mn.: Vysh. Shk., 1989.-271s.

17 Meshkova E.V. Meshkova E.V. M .: Onyx Publishing House, 2006.-176s.

18 Meshkova E.V. Meshkova E.V. Laboratory workshop.-M.: Onyx Publishing House, 2006.-112p.

19 Rogova A.P. Fundamentals of designing men’s and children’s outerwear. – M.: Legprombytizdat, 1986.-208s.

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