Statistics of HIV infections in healthcare facilities

State educational institution of higher professional education

“Altai State Medical University”

Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation

(GBOU VPO ASMU of the Ministry of Health of Russia)

abstract

Ways of transmission of HIV-infection in medical and preventive institutions

Performed:

1st year student

Medical faculty 101 groups

Tumka Ladislava

Barnaul, 2017

Table of contents

Epidemiology and modes of transmission. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

forms of HIV transmission

parenteral interventions in healthcare facilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3

Infection with HIV – an infection when it enters the body

infected blood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Statistics of HIV infections in health care facilities. . . . . . . . . . . . .4

Prevention of nosocomial HIV infection. . . . . . 5

Internet sources used. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Epidemiology and transmission of HIV infection

HIV infection can be transmitted both naturally and artificially.

1) The natural route of HIV transmission includes:

Contact

vertical

2) The artificial way of HIV transmission includes:

Artifical – for non-medical invasive procedures

Artifical – for medical invasive interventions in medical institutions. HIV infection can occur through transfusion of blood, its components, transplantation of organs and tissues, use of donor sperm, donor breast milk from an HIV-infected donor, as well as through medical instruments for parenteral interventions, medical devices contaminated with HIV and not processed in accordance with requirements of regulatory documents.

Forms of HIV transmission during parenteral interventions in healthcare facilities

1) From patient to patient (non-sterile instrumentation, blood transfusion, organ transplantation, plasmapheresis equipment, vaccination);

2) From the patient to the medical staff

The highest probability of HIV infection of health workers occurs when injured with a sharp instrument (hollow needle) 0.3%. The risk of infection upon contact of infectious material with mucous membranes or damaged skin is 0.09%;

3) From the medical staff to the patient.

Infection with HIV is an infection when infected blood enters the body

Transmission of HIV requires not only the presence of a source of infection and a susceptible subject, but also the occurrence of appropriate conditions that ensure this transmission. The immunodeficiency virus is transmitted by transfusion of infected whole blood and products made from it (erythrocyte mass, platelets, fresh and frozen plasma). When transfusing blood from HIV – seropositive donors, recipients become infected in 90% of cases. Normal human immunoglobulin, albumin is not dangerous, because. the technology for obtaining these drugs and the stages of control of raw materials exclude HIV infection.

The number of cases of HIV infection through transfusion of blood and blood products has decreased significantly around the world, but the risk of transmission through this route still remains.

Over the past few years, donated blood has been additionally tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify donors who are in the “seroconversion window” period, when the enzyme immunoassay for HIV antibodies still gives a negative result.

Statistics of HIV infections in healthcare facilities

By 2011, 380 Russians infected with HIV were identified in medical institutions:

282 – non-sterile medical instruments

73 – infection of blood recipients from HIV-infected donors

21 women infected with HIV from children from nosocomial foci while breastfeeding

3 – infection of medical workers in the line of duty

1 – infection of the donor kidney recipient

During the period from 2007 to 2013, 15 cases of formation of foci of nosocomial HIV infection were registered.

In recent years, a number of negative factors have been registered in the Russian Federation, indicating an increase in the risk of HIV infection when receiving medical care during hospitalization and healthcare facilities, including:

high prevalence of HIV infection in the population of the Russian Federation (0.44% per 100,000 population in 2012),

· an increase in the prevalence of HIV-infection in pregnant women from 0.3% in 2003 to up to 0.62% in 2012,

an increase in hospitalizations of HIV-infected people, including for reasons directly related to HIV infection,

a significant increase in cases of HIV infection in children first diagnosed several years after birth,

· growth of “accidental findings” of HIV-infection in mothers of infected children.

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