Stages of mastering knowledge

Question No. 7 Learning functions and stages of mastering knowledge.

Philosophy defines functions as external manifestations of the properties of an object in a given system. From this point of view, the functions of the learning process are its properties, the knowledge of which enriches our understanding of it and allows us to make it more effective. The concept of “function” is close to the concept of “learning task”. Learning functions characterize the essence of the learning process, while tasks are one of the learning components.

Didactics distinguishes three functions of the learning process:

The educational function lies in the fact that the learning process is aimed primarily at the formation of knowledge, skills, experience of creative activity. Knowledge in pedagogy is defined as understanding, storing in memory and reproducing the facts of science, concepts, rules, laws, theories. Modern didactics believes that knowledge is found in the skills of the student and that, consequently, education consists not so much in the formation of “abstract” knowledge, but in the development of skills to use it to obtain new knowledge and solve life problems. Therefore, the educational function of training assumes that training is aimed, along with knowledge, at the formation of skills and abilities, both general and special.

Under the ability to understand the possession of a method of activity, the ability to apply knowledge. It’s like knowledge in action.

Special skills refer to the methods of activity in certain branches of science, academic subject (for example, working with a map, laboratory scientific work).

General skills and abilities include the possession of oral and written speech, information materials, reading, working with a book, summarizing, etc.

An analysis of the educational function of learning naturally leads to the identification and description of a developmental function closely related to it.

The developmental function of learning means that in the process of learning, assimilation of knowledge, the development of the student takes place. This development occurs in all directions: the development of speech, thinking, sensory and motor spheres of the personality, emotional-volitional and need-motivational areas. The developmental function of learning essentially constitutes the problem of the relationship between learning and development – one of the most acute issues in psychology and modern didactics. Domestic psychological school and pedagogical research found that learning acts as a source, a means of personal development. One of the most important laws of psychology, formulated by L.S. Vygotsky, argues that learning leads to development . We can say that any education develops due, first of all, to the content of education and, secondly, due to the fact that teaching is an activity. And the personality, as is known from psychology, develops in the process of activity.

The modern organization of education is aimed not so much at the formation of knowledge, but at the diversified development of the student,

The learning process is also educational in nature . Pedagogical science believes that the relationship between upbringing and learning is an objective regularity, just like the relationship between learning and development. However, upbringing in the learning process is complicated by the influence of external factors (environment, microenvironment, etc.), which makes upbringing a more complex process.

The educational function of education consists in the fact that in the process of education moral and aesthetic ideas are formed, a system of views on the world, the ability to follow the norms of behavior in society, to comply with the laws adopted in it. In the learning process, the needs of the individual, the motives of social behavior, activities, values and value orientation, worldview are also formed.

The upbringing factor in learning is primarily the content of education , although not all subjects have equal educational potential. The second factor in education in the learning process, apart from the system of teaching methods, which also to a certain extent influences the formation of students, is the nature of communication between the teacher and students, the psychological climate in the classroom, the interaction of participants in the learning process, and the style of guidance by the teacher of students’ cognitive activity.

Stages of mastering knowledge

1. Students’ perception of the material being studied. Mastering the studied material begins with its perception. The essence of this cognitive action lies in the fact that students with the help of the senses, i.e. auditory, visual, tactile and olfactory sensations, perceive external properties, features and signs of the studied objects and phenomena. 2. Understanding the material being studied means the work of thought. The process of comprehending the studied material is very complex. The organization of the cognitive activity of students in the perception of the objects and phenomena being studied in their natural form or with the help of visual aids is very important for comprehending the material being studied. The more representations are formed in the minds of students, the clearer and brighter they are, the more material is available for the “work” of thought. This process includes the following mental operations : a) analysis of the perceived properties and features of the studied objects and phenomena, b) logical grouping of essential and non-essential features and properties of the studied objects and phenomena, c) “mental” comprehension of the essence (causes and effects) of the studied objects phenomena and the formulation of generalizing conclusions, concepts, laws, d) verification of the validity, truth of the conclusions drawn. Ultimately, the result of students’ understanding of the studied material is its understanding, awareness of the causes and consequences of cognizable objects, phenomena, processes and the formation of concepts. But the result of understanding the studied material is not only its understanding. In the process, students develop the ability to compare and analyze the phenomena being studied, to isolate their essential and non-essential features, as well as the ability to reason, to put forward hypotheses and theoretical generalizations, i.e. mental development takes place. In addition, they develop such personal qualities as curiosity, cognitive independence, ideological and moral-aesthetic views and beliefs are formed. 3. Cognitive activity to memorize the studied material. Memorization of the studied material has nothing to do with its mechanical memorization. On the contrary, it should be based on a deep and comprehensive understanding and understanding of the acquired knowledge and contribute to the mental development of students. 4. Application of acquired knowledge in practice. Skills and abilities, as well as creativity, are formed and developed in the process of organizing multiple exercises. For example, with the help of exercises, students develop the ability to read meaningfully, write competently, solve problems and examples in mathematics.

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