|Preparatory stage||operational stage||Productive stage|
|Characteristics of the problem situation||Object Modeling||Logical research plan|
|Theme development analysis||Clarification of the problem situation, its logical analysis in basic concepts, formulation of problems||Scheme of concepts of operational interpretation, units and categories of analysis. Information collection and analysis methods|
|Logical analysis – highlighting the problem, goal, object, subject||Clarification of the object, topic, goal, main tasks, subject||Sample forms and tasks for it|
|Introduction to the object. Methodical preparation for the collection of information, collection and analysis of information||Putting forward hypotheses and consequences from them||Methodical tasks|
|Clarification of tasks – theoretical, methodological, practical||Draft organizational plan|
|Draft program, its expertise|
Detailing the stages of development of the research program
Stage 1. Collection of preliminary information for the development of a research program . Procedures for this stage:
1. Acquaintance with the object of study.
2. Clarification of its structure, features of functioning, nature of activity, interaction with other objects.
3. The study of the numerical (socio-demographic) composition of the object of study.
4. Collection of address information about the heads of structural divisions.
5. Establishment of organizational contacts with persons interested in the results of the study.
6. Identification of real problems, difficulties, contradictions in the functioning of the object by the methods of expert surveys.
Stage 2. Development of the research program.
1. Formulation and justification of the research program.
2. Description of the object and subject of the study, determination of the sample of the study.
3. Clarification of the purpose and objectives of the study.
4. Interpretation of basic concepts.
5. Determination of methods for collecting, processing and analyzing sociological information.
6. Drawing up a work plan.
Stage 3. Collection of sociological information.
1. Conducting pilot studies, discussion and approval, replication of sociological tools.
2. Compilation, editing, reproduction of instructions for collecting information.
3. Establishment of organizational relations with the heads of structural divisions of the object of study.
4. Collection of primary sociological information according to the method specified in the program.
5. Direct and indirect verification (validation) of information.
6. Organizers control over the quality and timing of work.
Stage 4. Processing of sociological information.
1. Systematization of the collected data.
2. Primary check of the collected materials for accuracy and completeness.
3. Correction of records in sociological tools.
4. Self-control using parallel techniques.
5. Classification of answers to open questions of the questionnaires.
6. Manual processing of materials.
7. Statistical processing of information using computers.
8. Compression of information using graphs, charts, analytical tables.
Stage 5. Analysis of sociological information and development of recommendations.
1. Description (interpretation) of the collected data, formulation of conclusions.
2. Comparison of the obtained results with hypotheses.
3. Evaluation of the findings from the standpoint of their scientific and practical significance.
4. Development of practical recommendations.
5. Discussion of the report.
6. Development of a plan for implementing the results of the study.
7. Conducting a research conference based on the results of the work.
Each stage has its own specifics, since different work is carried out at different stages. But all these stages are interdependent and interconnected. You cannot start a new stage if the previous one has not been completed. All the material obtained at the previous stage is the basis for the subsequent stage.
The research program is called a statistical document, after reading which one can understand the concept of the entire study, understand which issues were of particular interest to the organizers and prompted them to attempt to carry out a scientific analysis.
Typical mistakes and difficulties in developing a research program:
1. Problems are formulated that do not reflect the real situation, the state of the object, the essence of the problem situation. Previously solved problems are posed.
2. The purpose of the study is not related to the selected problem, formulated abstractly, does not reflect the specifics of the object. Research objectives are not defined.
3. The tasks set are divorced from real possibilities, means of research.
4. During the development of the program, the analysis of the object model in the system of factors was not carried out.
5. Based on the available data, it is difficult to establish the boundaries of the object, its composition, and structure.
6. The subject of research is not indicated. Given too narrow or broad interpretation of it.
7. In the course of work on the program, it turned out that the subject content of the problem was theoretically poorly developed.
8. The study ignores the importance of its theoretical model. The emphasis is completely shifted to the analysis of empirical indicators.
9. Theoretical and empirical levels of process analysis are mixed.
10. Theoretical interpretation is carried out fragmentarily. The logical connection of the basic concepts of the study has not been established.
11. There are no hypotheses in the study.
12. When maintaining hypotheses, the initial data are limited.
13. No theoretical interpretation of hypotheses.
14. The main hypothesis is much narrower (wider) than the problem (main tasks) of the study.
15. Empirical and operational interpretation of the hypotheses has not been carried out.
16. In the course of empirical interpretation of hypotheses, a too wide or narrow range of empirical indicators is introduced.
17. A hypothesis expresses propositions that are not amenable to direct empirical interpretation.
18. The categories and units of analysis are not correlated with each other, the scheme of concepts of operational interpretation is not built.
19. Tasks for the compilation of methodology, procedures, and design of research tools have not been established.
20. In the study, concepts are used in different senses, their content is not specified, there is no conceptual unity of the study.
21. No logical research plan.
22. Program expertise has not been carried out.
Program development is a very responsible business. Do not start research until the program is well developed.