Speech Comprehension Scale

(EM. Mastyukova, 1990)

Levels Age Key indicators of speech understanding
3-6 months The child listens to the voice of an adult, adequately responds to intonation, recognizes familiar voices
6-10 months The child understands individual instructions and obeys some verbal commands (“Kiss mom”, “Find dad”, “Give me a pen”, “No”), etc.
10-12 months The child understands the names of individual objects
12-14 months The child recognizes images of individual objects
15-18 months The child recognizes images of individual objects in plot pictures
2 years 6 months The child understands the designations of actions in various situations (“Show me who is sitting, who is sleeping”); a two-step instruction (“Go to the kitchen and fetch a cup”); the meaning of prepositions in a familiar situation (“What are you sitting on?”)
2 years 6 months – 3 years The child understands the read short stories and fairy tales with and without visual support.
by 4 years The child understands complex sentences, the meaning of prepositions outside of a specific, familiar situation

Seminar 9.

The role of intonation in the formation of phonemic speech.

Speech behavior is a mirror that reflects the level of upbringing, the internal culture of a person. After all, only a sincere benevolent attitude towards the interlocutor, true concern for his well-being encourage a person to express his friendliness, favor with the help of verbal signs of attention.

Intonation plays a huge role in observing the rules of speech communication. Without it, there can be no oral speech at all. Thoughts, feelings, moods are consciously or involuntarily transmitted with the help of intonational means (melodics, logical stress, pauses, tone, voice timbre, speech tempo). The role of intonation is so great that it can even change the meaning of a word. “Good!” – we exclaim approvingly at the sight of a luxurious bouquet of flowers. The same word in a different speech environment can express a completely different meaning. Having met a dirty, shaggy boy on the street, we will mockingly say, lowering our voice on a stressed vowel and holding out this sound: “Ho-ro-o-osh!” Depending on the speech situation, the intention of the speaker, his state of mind, the sentence Thunderstorm is coming can be pronounced indifferently, calmly, restrainedly, with fear, anxiety, horror or joy, delight. Intonation, like facial expressions, gestures, can sometimes tell more than words. That is why we often trust the intonation than the direct meaning of the phrase.

The special role of intonation in communication has been recognized by people for a long time. So, evidence has been preserved that the ancient Greek philosopher Socrates expressed his opinion about a person only after he heard his voice. The observations of another scientist who lived in the 13th century, Abdul-Faraj, are interesting: “He who speaks, gradually lowering his voice, is undoubtedly deeply saddened by something …; who speaks in a weak voice is as timid as a lamb; he who speaks piercingly and incoherently is stupid as a goat.” Without a doubt, intonation carries extremely important information about a person, and not only about his character, mood, upbringing, but even about his profession. This is evidenced by an experiment once conducted by British radio. Nine readers spoke on the air, the listeners were asked to determine their gender, age and profession. The actor, the judge and the priest were unmistakably recognized, since their voice has a professional setting and specific intonations.

Seminar 11.

The periods of formation of the grammatical structure of speech (A.N. Gvozdev): the period of a sentence, consisting of amorphous words – roots, the period of assimilation of the grammatical structure of the sentence, the period of further assimilation of the morphological system.

First period: from 1 year 3 months. up to 1 year 10 months – a period of sentences consisting of amorphous root words that are used in one unchanged form in all cases where they are used.

An analysis of the first individual words during normal speech development shows that the first 3-5 words of the child are very close in their sound composition to the words of an adult: mom, dad, woman, am, boo. The set of these words is relatively the same for all children. The facts of the child’s first verbal manifestations show that the babbling child initially “selects” from the adult’s speech addressed to him those words that are accessible to his articulation. The first speech reactions are associated with a certain range of situations or objects and are assigned to them, i.e. the word is formed in its specific function – the sign unit. Having mastered the minimum of coordinated articulatory modes, children manage with a set of those sounds that they managed to acquire according to their speech motor capabilities. The transition from simple imitation of sounds to the reproduction of words opens up opportunities for the accumulation of a new vocabulary and moves the child from the category of non-speaking children to the category of poorly speaking children. In the speech of children, omissions of syllables in words are allowed, there are a number of words that are distorted: yaba – apple, mako – milk, etc.

A.N. Gvozdev notes that the period of development during which the child uses only individual words, without combining them into a two-word amorphous sentence, is called the period of a one-word sentence. A one-word sentence is the starting point for the development of children’s speech (Gvozdev A.N., 1961, 2007). With normal development, this period takes about half a head in a child’s speech (from 1 year 3 months to 1 year 8 months) and includes a small number of verbal units: approximately 29 words, of which 22 are nouns, 5-7 are verbs, other parts of speech are absent. The first step in speech development is that the child combines two and then three words in one statement. These first phrases are either borrowed entirely from the speech of others, or are the work of the child. The design of such original sentences indicates that they are “composed” on their own, since they have no analogues in the speech of others, for example: akobibiku, I’ll sit there – open the car, I’ll sit there. A characteristic feature of this period is that the child is not able to use the word he has learned in two or three grammatical forms. For example, the word mom (nominative case) is used in the same way and in the phrases I love mom, ghoul mom – walked with mom.

The words used by children in the initial verbal combinations are used by them in the form in which they were extracted from the speech of others, without reconstructing them into the desired grammatical form. For some time, children do not notice the variability of the end of their native language because in the language material perceived from the surrounding language, the lexical basis of the word acts as a constant verbal irritant for the child, and inflections are suffixes, endings – as a changing environment, which varies in various combinations with root morph. Inflections in this case are ignored by the child. The lexical bases used by children are close in their meaning to the “bare” root and were named by A.N. Gvozdev: “amorphous words-roots” (Gvozdev A.N., 1961, 2007).

The use of word forms in the form in which they were extracted from the speech of others, and the combination of these words with other similar words of one’s own lexicon, is the main regularity of the stage of development under consideration. Having once mastered the word, the child uses it uniformly to refer to completely different situations: this kitty, give kitty, no kitty. Having no formal categorical means of their native language in their verbal arsenal, children are not capable of inflection, and therefore cannot restructure the form of a word in connection with their own utterance. This period, during which children use in their statements unchangeable amorphous root words and their combinations with each other, is commonly called the period of sentences from amorphous root words. This period of time lasts so briefly (from 1 year 8 months to 1 year 10 months) that it goes unnoticed by most researchers of children’s speech. During this period of speech development, syllable elision (omission) takes place, many articulation patterns are absent, omissions and substitutions of sounds are observed. The total number of words in the expressive speech of a normally developing child does not exceed 100 units (Gvozdev A.N., 1961, 2007).

The second period of the formation of children’s speech: from 1 year 10 months. up to 3 years – the period of assimilation of the grammatical structure of the sentence, associated with the formation of grammatical categories and their external expression.

A.N. Gvozdev notes that at this stage, children begin to notice the technique of connecting words in a sentence. In their speech, the first cases of inflection appear. Depending on the syntactic construction of the utterance, the child begins to form the same word grammatically in different ways, for example, it is kis-a, but give kis-u, etc. The same lexical basis of a word begins to be formed by the child with the help of different inflectional elements. Nouns have different case endings and suffixes of diminutiveness and endearment, verbs begin to use endings of the 3rd person of the indicative mood (-it, -et).

According to A.N. Gvozdev, the first grammatical elements that children begin to use correlate with a limited number of situations, namely: with the transitivity of the action to the object, the place of action, sometimes its instrumentality, etc. (Gvozdev A.N., 1961, 2007).

In this period, an interesting pattern was discovered in the development of children’s speech, which consists in the fact that simultaneously with the appearance of grammatical variability of words, children stop using onomatopoeic words in speech (“am-am”, “bi-bi”, etc.), which had been actively used before.

With the normal development of speech, the process of isolating morphological elements by the child in the language material he perceives has the character of a sharp jump. According to A.N. Gvozdev, the isolation of morphological elements of words is carried out at the age of 1 year 10 months. – 2 years at the same time for many categories of words. However, the general lexicon is small: there are just over 100 words in the category of nouns, 50 words in the category of verbs, and no more than 25 words in the category of adjectives (Gvozdev A.N., 1961, 2007).

The period of assimilation of the grammatical structure of the sentence by A.N. Gvozdev divided into three stages:

The first stage, when grammatically correct sentences of the type appear in the child’s speech: nominative case + agreed verb in the indicative mood of the present tense, with the correct ending of the word {mom is sleeping, sitting, standing, etc.), despite the fact that the rest of the words agrammatic.

This stage is named by A.N. Gvozdev “The first forms of words”, and it lasts from 1 year 10 months. up to 2 years 1 month At this stage, the scope of the sentence expands to 3-4 words, a grammatical connection between words begins to be established, agreement between the subject and the predicate, subordination to the verb develops. From the age of two, adjectives appear, but without agreement with nouns, more often in the nominative case of the singular masculine and feminine, as well as adverbs and pronouns.

The second stage, in which the child widely uses words with the correct and incorrect endings of words, owns constructions such as: nominative case + agreed verb, however, correctly formed prepositional constructions are completely absent in his speech, called the stage “Assimilation of the inflectional system of the language”, which lasts from 2 years 1 month up to 2 years 3 months

This stage is characterized by a further growth of a simple sentence up to 5-8 words, non-union compound sentences appear, and then with unions. The “dominant” case endings of nouns in the singular are assimilated: -u, -e, -a, -om, in the plural -ы. The present and past tenses of verbs are distinguished. The number of adjectives, adverbs increases, personal pronouns are learned. Prepositions appear – in, on, at, with, unions – then, then, and when, because.

The third stage, in which the language development of children who speak phrasal speech and are able in some cases to build prepositional constructions with the correct design of inflections and prepositions, is called the stage of “Assimilation of the service parts of speech”, its duration is 2 years 3 months. – 3 years

At this stage, the development of a complex sentence occurs, complex sentences appear, function words are assimilated. By the age of three, the main features of the grammatical structure of the native language have been mastered. The further rate of its formation slows down.

According to N.S. Zhukova, the learned grammatical form of speech is considered:

– if it is used in words of different meanings: give doll-y, machine-y, eat porridge;

– if the words spoken by the child also have other, at least two forms of this word: this is a doll-a, give a doll-y, there is no doll-s;

– if there are cases of formation by analogy (Zhukova N.S., 1994).

The emergence of ability independently is correct in meaning

to use a whole range of lexical and grammatical elements of words is the biggest turning point in the development of children’s speech, which ensures the dynamic assimilation of the syntactic and morphological structure of the native language.

The third period of the formation of children’s speech: from 3 to 7 years – the period of assimilation of the morphological system of the language.

A.N. Gvozdev notes that the speech of more advanced children belongs to this period. Until this period, children’s speech is replete with grammatical inaccuracies, which testify to the original, unimitated use of such building material of the language as morphological elements.

Gradually mixed elements of words are distinguished by types of declension, conjugation and other grammatical categories, and single, rarely occurring forms begin to be used constantly.

Gradually, the free use of morphological elements of words is on the wane and the use of word forms becomes stable, i.e. their lexicalization is carried out. There is a use of the correct alternation of stress, gender, rare turns of speech, numerals, the formation of verbs from other parts of speech, the coordination of adjectives with other parts of speech in all indirect cases is mastered, one gerund is used {sitting), prepositions are used in a wide variety of meanings (Gvozdev A. N., 1961, 2007). It can be said that the sequence with which the mastery of the types of sentences, the ways of connecting words within them, the syllabic structure of words proceeds in line with patterns and interdependence, which makes it possible to characterize the process of the formation of children’s speech as a complex, diverse and systemic process (according to the materials of the site Central and Regional education.

Seminar 13.

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