Specify testing steps and types of errors.

Give tests for the task:

Enter the elements of the two-dimensional array MAS(2,2) and, if at least one element is >10 above the main diagonal, calculate the number of all elements of the matrix, otherwise display the message “Condition not met”.

Testing is the process of executing a program in order to detect errors.

2. Types of errors.

All errors in software development are divided into the following

Error (error) – a state of the program in which incorrect results are produced, the cause of which are flaws in the program statements or in the technological process of its development, which leads to an incorrect interpretation of the initial information, and therefore to an incorrect decision.

A defect (fault) in a program is a consequence of the developer’s mistakes at any stage of development and may be contained in the original or design specifications, program code texts, operational documentation, etc. The defect is discovered during the execution of the program.

Failure (failure) is a deviation of the program from functioning or the inability of the program to perform the functions defined by the requirements and restrictions and is considered as an event that contributes to the transition of the program to an inoperable state due to errors, defects hidden in it or failures in the functioning environment.

All errors that occur in programs are usually divided into the following classes:

– logical and functional errors – are the cause of a violation of the logic of the algorithm, internal inconsistency of variables and operators, as well as programming rules;

– computational and runtime errors – occur due to inaccuracies in the initial data and implemented formulas, method errors, incorrect application of computational operations or operands;

– input-output and data manipulation errors – are the result of poor-quality data preparation for program execution, failures when entering them in databases or when retrieving from it;

– interface errors – refer to errors in the interconnection of individual elements with each other, which manifests itself when transferring data between them, as well as when interacting with the operating environment;

– data volume errors, etc. – relate to data and are a consequence of the fact that the implemented access methods and database sizes do not satisfy the volume of system information or the intensity of its processing

3. Stages of software testing.

• unit testing – the minimum possible component for testing is tested, for example, a separate class or function;

• integrated testing – it is checked whether there are any problems in the interfaces and interaction between integrated components, for example, information is not transmitted, incorrect information is transmitted;

• system testing – the integrated system is tested for compliance with the initial requirements:

o alpha testing – imitation of real work with the system by developers or real work with the system by potential users-customers on the developer’s side.

o beta testing – in some cases, a version with restrictions (in terms of functionality or time of work) is distributed to a certain group of people in order to make sure that the product contains few enough errors.

Give the concept of a class.

Describe the classes used to model software.

Develop a graphical representation of class images for software modeling:

a) the control class;

b) entity class;

B) boundary class.

The structure and behavior of identical objects is described in a common class for them .

The control class is responsible for coordinating the actions of other classes and controls the sequence of execution of the actions of the use case for this software. Each class diagram must have at least one control class ( Fig. 1, a ).

Entity class is a passive class, information about which must be stored permanently. As a rule, this class corresponds to a separate database table. In this case, its attributes are the fields of this table, and the operations are attached or stored procedures ( Fig. 1b ).

· the boundary class is located on the boundary of the system with the external environment. This type includes both classes that implement user interfaces and classes that provide an interface with hardware or software systems ( Fig. 1c ).

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