Soil mechanics tests

1. Rock is:

a) mineral aggregates, which are characterized by a certain constancy of chemical and mineral composition, structure, properties, genesis and certain conditions of occurrence in the earth’s crust;

b) chemical compound;

c) aggregates of minerals occurring in the earth’s crust.

2. Physical properties of soils:

a) porosity, porosity coefficient, moisture content, consistency, fracturing, karsting and weathering;

b) porosity, humidity, density;

c) density, porosity, humidity, consistency, fracturing, karsting and weathering in natural conditions;

d) porosity, porosity coefficient, fracturing, karsting and weathering, humidity, smell, color;

3. What is called the base?

a ) an array of soil located directly under the structure and next to it, which is deformed from the forces transferred to it with the help of foundations;

b) an array of soil located directly under the structure;

c) the construction site is called the base.

4. With what speed do stresses propagate in solids?

? a) in solids, stresses propagate at the rate of application of the load;

b) stresses do not propagate in solids.

c) at a speed of 50cm/s

5. The most durable rock:

a) granite;

b) marble;

c) quartzite;

? d) calcite.

6. Water-physical properties of soils:

? a) moisture capacity, water permeability, capillarity, and for clay soils – shrinkage, soaking and swelling, stickiness, for loess – subsidence;

b) humidity, moisture capacity, water permeability, capillarity

c) permeability, shrinkage, drawdown;

d) moisture capacity, water permeability, capillarity, soaking and swelling

7. What is called the foundation?

a) an underground or underwater part of a building or structure, which serves to transfer forces from it to the foundation soils and, if possible, distribute them more evenly, as well as reduce the pressure to the required values;

part of a building or structure that serves to transfer forces from it to the foundation soils;

b) an array of soil located directly under the structure and next to it, which is deformed from the forces transferred to it with the help of foundations.

c) the part of the building below the ground

? 8. The texture of the rock can be (specify 4 main types):

a) massive (solid);

b) microcrystalline;

c) cellular;

d) glass wool;

e) layered;

e) slate

g) coarse-grained

9. Porosity is:

a) voids in the rock;

b) the ratio of the volume of all small and non-communicating voids of a given rock to the volume of its solid part;

c) voids in the rock of different sizes;

e) the ratio of the volume of all small and non-communicating voids in a given rock sample to the entire volume of the sample.

10. What is called the plasticity number I p of clay soil?

a) the difference between the moisture content at the yield point w T and at the rolling boundary w p is called;

b) is the difference between the moisture at rolling w p and at the yield point w T

c) the difference between the natural moisture content w and at the rolling boundary w p is called.

11. What stresses cause soil compression?

a) only effective, that is, transmitted to the soil skeleton. Neutral pressure does not affect the compression of the soil.

b) neutral voltages.

c) effective and neutral voltages

12. Structure of clay rocks:

a) cryptocrystalline;

b) fine-grained;

c) clastic;

d) pelitic.

13. The porosity of loose non-cohesive rocks depends on:

? a) on the size and shape of particles in loose granular rocks and fracturing;

b) from water permeability;

c) on the size and shape of particles in loose granular rocks and the nature of their composition.

14. What determines the compressibility of soils? What causes compression of fully water-saturated soils?

a) change in soil porosity due to repacking of particles, displacement of water from soil pores. Compression of fully water-saturated soils is possible only if water is displaced from the pores of the soil;

b) displacement of water from the pores of the soil. Compression of fully water-saturated soils is possible only if water is displaced from the pores of the soil;

c) change in water saturation due to repacking of particles, creep of water shells. Compression of fully water-saturated soils is possible only if water is displaced from the pores of the soil.

? 15. The structure of the rock can be (choose 3 correct ones):

a) granular;

b) layered;

c) porous;

d) uniformly granular;

e) uneven-grained.

16. Mechanical properties of soils:

a) strength, deformability, density;

b) density, compression and deformability;

c) strength and deformability.

? 17. Types of structural bonds formed in rocks:

a) crystalline; molecular; ion-electric; magnetic;

b) crystalline; molecular;

c) crystallization; molecular; ion-electrostatic; electrostatic; magnetic; capillary;

d) molecular; electrical; magnetic, electrostatic, ion-electrostatic

18. Sand is:

a) igneous rock;

b) metamorphic rock;

c) sedimentary rock;

19. Porosity is determined by the formula, where: V is the entire volume of the rock sample, Vs is the volume of the rock skeleton, Vp is the pore volume of the rock:

a) Vs/V;

b) V/Vs;

c) Vp/Vs;

d) Vp / V.

20. In what coordinates is the compression curve displayed?

a) in coordinates: coefficient of porosity (ε) and normal load (σ n ), MPa;

b) in coordinates: porosity n pressure p , MPa;

c) in coordinates: tangential load (τ) pressure p , MPa.

21. Diatomite is:

a) metamorphic rock;

b) sedimentary rock of clastic origin;

c) igneous rock;

d) sedimentary rock of organic origin.

22. The density of a sample of natural composition is determined by the formula (g / cm 3 ), where: g – mass, g s – mass of the rock skeleton (g), V – volume (cm 3 ):

a) g s /V;

b) Vp/Vs;

c) g /Vs;

d) g/V.

23. Dolomite is:

a) metamorphic rock;

b) sedimentary rock of chemical origin;

c) igneous rock;

d) sedimentary organogenic rock, rocky soil.

24. What formula determines the moisture content of a sample of natural addition (%), with a density of the skeleton u003d ρ d (g / cm 3 ): where: g is the mass, ρ is the density, W is the humidity, Wp is the total moisture capacity, g p is the mass water filling the pores, g s – mass of dry rock:

a) W u003d ((g – g s ) / g p ) * 100;

b) W u003d (g / g p ) * 100;

c) W u003d (g p / g s ) * 100;

d) W = G*Wp, where: G – water saturation coefficient.

? 25. Hooke’s law in principal normal stresses

a)

b)

in)

.

26. Soils are:

a) rocks of various composition;

b) soil layer;

c) soils and rocks;

d) rocks and soils are objects of human engineering activity.

27. What is soil shear resistance:

a) The shear resistance of soils is understood as the smallest shear stress – τ, at which the soil under normal pressure – σ is sheared (shifted).

b) The shear resistance of soils is understood as the smallest normal stress – σ n , at which the soil under pressure – σ, is sheared (shifted).

c) Soil resistance to shear characterizes the instability of the soil in slopes;

28. Loam is:

a) metamorphic rock;

b) intrusive igneous rock;

c) sedimentary rock of mixed type

? 29. Which sands have cohesion = 0:

a) fine-grained;

b) clay;

c) pure quartz

d) dusty.

30. What deformations are characteristic of soils?

a) Linear and non-linear deformations

b) soils are characterized by non-linear deformability, and in a certain initial range of stress variation it is quite close to linear;

c) soils are characterized by linear deformability

31. Water in rocks (soils) happens (5 main states):

a) fresh

b) salty;

c) vaporous;

d) film

e) capillary;

e) hygroscopic;

g) gravitational;

? e) pore.

32. Permeable soils include (3 correct):

a) clay;

? b) pebbles;

c) sands;

d) monolithic rocks;

e) fractured rocks.

33. Water seals include (3 correct):

a) sands

b) pebbles;

c) clay;

? d) granites

e) mudstones

34. What parameters and how are determined to calculate the consistency (B) of clay rocks:

a) empirical method;

b) the laboratory method determines the indicators of humidity – West. and characteristic humidity Wp and Wt;

whence: В = (West – Wp)/(Wт –Wр) = (West – Wp)/Iп;

c) the calculation method determines the indicators West, Wt; from where: B u003d West – Wt;

d) direct weighing of the rock sample.

? 35. The structure of the rock mass (GP) depends on:

a) unconformable or consonant occurrence of HP in the massif, flooding of the massif, tendency to landslide processes;

c) the nature of the occurrence of HP in the massif, the chemical composition of ground and surface waters;

d) the nature of the occurrence of HP in the massif;

e) susceptibility to landslide processes.

36. What characterizes the pressure gradient?

a) loss of piezometric head per unit length of the filtration path;

b) the ratio of the length of the filtration path to the magnitude of the pressure drop;

c) pressure difference

37. The class of rocky soils includes the following groups:

a) rocky and semi-rocky, dispersed;

b) rocky, dispersed;

c) hard and soft;

d) rocky and semi-rocky.

38. Transverse strain ratio (Poisson’s ratio)

a) this is the coefficient of proportionality between the relative transverse (ε x , ε y ) deformations and the relative longitudinal (ε z ) deformations

b) numerically equal to the ratio of the lateral pressure of the rock (P b ) to the vertical load that caused it (P)

.

? 39. Sedimentary rocks include:

a) limestone, sandstone, gravelstone, siltstone;

b) sand, granite, basalt, quartzite;

c) clay, mudstone, siltstone, calcite.

40. Mechanical properties of rocks (soils) are determined by indicators:

a) density, compressibility, shear resistance;

b) compressibility indicators; shear resistance;

c) granulometric composition;

d) humidity.

41. What is the granulometric composition of the soil:

a) the content of particles of various sizes in the soil, expressed as a percentage in relation to the mass of the dry sample taken for analysis;

b) the quantitative ratio of particles of different sizes in dispersed soils;

c) the content in the soil of particles of the same size, taken for analysis;

d) the content of particles in the soil, expressed as a percentage in relation to the weight of the dry sample taken for analysis.

42. Formula for determining the filtration coefficient – Kf (m / day)

a) Kf u003d Q / F * I u003d Q / F * ((h 1 -h 2 ) / L);

b) Kf u003d Q * F / I;

c) Kf = Q*F*I;

d) Kf u003d Q * 864 / F * ((h 1 -h 2 ) / L),

where: Q is the flow rate in cm 3 /s, F is the cross-sectional area of the water flow;

I – pressure gradient; 864 is the conversion factor from cm/s to m/day.

43 The class of dispersed soils includes:

a) metamorphic rocks;

b) fine-grained rocks;

c) igneous rocks;

d) sedimentary rocks – cohesive soft and non-cohesive loose soils.

44. The compressibility factor is:

a) the tangent of the slope of the compression curve (tg a ), usually denoted by a and called the compressibility coefficient;

b) the ratio of the lateral pressure of the rock (P b ) to the vertical load that caused it (P).

45. Rocky soils are:

a) sedimentary clastic rocks;

b) monolithic igneous rocks;

c) monoliths;

d) igneous, metamorphic, sedimentary cemented and chemogenic rocks.

46. Modulus of elasticity (Young’s modulus)

a) this is the coefficient of proportionality between the relative deformation and the value of the stress that caused it;

b) this is the coefficient of proportionality between relative transverse (ε x , ε y ) deformations and relative longitudinal (ε z ) deformations

47. Modulus of general deformation, expressed in MPa (the law of deformability):

a) expresses the proportionality between the general deformations of the rock (elastic and residual) and the stresses that cause them, ;

b) this is the coefficient of proportionality between the relative deformation and the value of the stress that caused it; .

48. Porosity is:

a) voids in the rock;

b) the ratio of the volume of all small and non-communicating voids of a given rock to the entire volume of the same rock;

c) voids in the rock of different sizes;

49. Shear modulus is:

a) the coefficient of proportionality of shear stress and deformation of elastic shear, flowing almost instantly after the application of the load, ;

b) this is the coefficient of proportionality between relative transverse (ε x , ε y ) deformations and relative longitudinal (ε z ) deformations

50. Soil creep is:

a) the process of soil deformation, which develops over time even at constant stress;

b) the process of deformation of clay soils;

c) the process of soil deformation, which develops in time with varying stress.

51. What is filtration soil consolidation?

a) the process of soil compaction in the process of water filtration;

b) the process of soil compaction, accompanied by the squeezing of water from the pores;

c) the process of compaction of unsaturated soil.

52. What are the names of devices for determining the compressibility of soils?

a) a monometer;

b) odometer;

c) balancing cone;

d) stamp.

53. What does the compression curve show?

? a) relationship between porosity factor and load;

b) the relationship between the porosity coefficient and deformations;

c) relationship between strains and stresses;

? 54. What does Coulomb’s law express?

a) the relationship between stresses and strains;

b) relationship between porosity factor and load;

c) relationship between porosity coefficient and deformations.

55. What expression defines Coulomb’s law:

a) τ=σ n tgφ+С

b) τ= tgφ+С

c) τ=σ n cosφ+С

56. The class of frozen soils includes:

a) sedimentary water-saturated rocks in a frozen state;

b) ice soils in the form of ground and underground ice;

c) rocky, semi-rocky and cohesive soils at negative temperatures, icy soils in the form of ground and underground ice.

57. Technogenic soils include:

a) artificial soils created as a result of human activities;

b) natural soils transformed as a result of human activities;

c) natural soils transformed as a result of human activity, artificial soils created as a result of human activity.

58. What is the density of the rock skeleton?

a) the ratio of the mass of soil to the volume occupied by this soil;

b) the ratio of the mass of dry soil to the volume of its solid part;

c) the ratio of the mass of dry soil to the volume occupied by this soil.

59. What is the plasticity number of clay soils?

a) the difference between the moisture content at the rolling boundary and the moisture content at the yield boundary;

b) the difference between the moisture at the yield boundary and the moisture at the rolling boundary;

c) the difference between the natural moisture content and the moisture content at the yield point.

60. What structure do sandy soils have:

? a) pelitic;

b) psephytic;

c) psammite.

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