Software and its classification

Software (eng. software ) is a set of programs that ensure the functioning of computers and the solution of problems of subject areas with their help. Software (SW) is an integral part of a computer system, is a logical continuation of technical means and determines the scope of the computer.

The software of modern computers includes a wide variety of programs, which can be divided into three groups:

1. System software (system programs);

2. Application software (application programs);

3. Tooling (tool systems).

System software (SW) are programs that control the operation of a computer and perform various auxiliary functions, for example, managing computer resources, creating copies of information, checking the performance of computer devices, issuing help information about a computer, etc. They are intended for all categories of users, are used for the efficient operation of the computer and the user, and the efficient execution of application programs.

The central place among system programs is occupied by operating systems (eng. operating systems ). An operating system (OS) is a set of programs designed to manage the loading, launch and execution of other user programs, as well as to plan and manage computer computing resources, i.e. control of the PC operation from the moment it is turned on until the moment the power is turned off. It loads automatically when the computer is turned on, conducts a dialogue with the user, manages the computer, its resources (RAM, disk space, etc.), launches other programs for execution, and provides the user and programs with a convenient way to communicate – interface – with computer devices . In other words, the operating system ensures the functioning and interconnection of all components of the computer, and also provides the user with access to its hardware capabilities.

The OS determines the performance of the system, the degree of data protection, the choice of programs with which you can work on a computer, and hardware requirements. Examples of OS are MS DOS, OS/2, Unix, Windows 9x, Windows XP.

Application software (APP) is designed to solve user problems. It includes user application programs and application software packages (APP) for various purposes .

The instrumental software includes: programming systems – for the development of new programs, for example, Pascal, BASIC. Usually they include: a text editor that provides the creation and editing of programs in the original programming language (source programs), a translator, as well as libraries of subroutines; application development tools , such as C++, Delphi, Visual Basic, Java, which include visual programming tools; modeling systems , for example, the MatLab simulation system, BpWin business process modeling systems and ErWin databases, and others.

Operating systems and their classification

The operating system is a link, on the one hand, between the computer hardware and the programs being executed, and on the other hand, between the computer hardware and the user.

Operating system features include:

support for dialogue with the user;

input-output and data management;

planning and organization of the process of processing programs;

distribution of resources (RAM and cache memory, processor, external devices);

launching programs for execution;

Performing auxiliary maintenance operations;

transfer of information between various internal devices;

Support for peripheral devices (display, keyboard, floppy and hard disk drives, printer, etc.).

In accordance with the functions performed in the structure of the OS, the following main components can be distinguished:

modules that provide the user interface;

a module that manages the file system;

A module that decrypts and executes commands (command processor);

Peripheral device drivers.

OS classification:

According to the number of tasks simultaneously solved on the computer, the OS is divided into:

single-tasking ( for example, MS DOS);

· multitasking (for example, OS/2, UNIX, Windows 95 and above).

By the number of concurrent users :

single user (for example, MS DOS, Windows 3.x);

· multi-user (for example, Unix, Linux, Windows 2000).

By user interface:

· with a command interface (for example, MS DOS);

· with a graphical interface (eg Windows).

The characteristics of operating systems, as a rule, are influenced by the specifics of the hardware on which it is oriented. By type of equipment , operating systems for personal computers of various platforms (IBM-compatible, Apple Macintosh), minicomputers, mainframes, clusters and computer networks are distinguished. Among these types of computers, both uniprocessor and multiprocessor variants can be found.

According to the number of bits of the address bus of computers that the OS is oriented to, operating systems are divided into 16 (MS DOS), 32 (Windows 2000) and 64-bit (Windows 2003).

INTERNET EXPLORER

Internet Explorer is one of the most popular free Internet browsers for the Windows operating system. The latest version of the browser blocks pop-ups, works with tabs, secures domain names, and supports group policy.

Internet Explorer is updated without problems using Windows Update. Among its advantages, first of all, it is worth noting the presence of a built-in search engine that can display results in a separate window or tab.

The user has the ability to customize the search on their own by choosing their favorite search engine. The browser allows you to view thumbnails of open tabs in one window. In order to improve security, the creators of Internet Explorer have integrated a phishing utility into the utility – a filter that minimizes the likelihood of hacker attacks and infection of the operating system.

The latest versions of this Internet browser (9 and 10) are fast compared to competitive programs. In addition, they are equipped with fonts that allow you to display small text clearly and easily to read.

Today, Internet Explorer supports all the technologies that are used to create websites: all kinds of multimedia clips (audio and video), data encryption, various hypertext markup languages. The browser works correctly with most existing sites, which is why the user is unlikely to encounter the problem of incorrect display of the Internet project. Internet Explorer recognizes many different file formats, among them: text TXT; executable – EXE video MOV, AVI files vrml worlds WRL audio – AU, WAV, MID, MP3.

Along with the advantages, this Internet browser is not without its drawbacks. These include: interface congestion – the address entry panel is linked with the tab bar; the download manager does not recognize individual files; poorly thought out editing favorites; the last two versions of the browser are not installed on Windows XP, only on subsequent operating systems from Microsoft.

In addition, Internet Explorer does not support special themes, so users will have to be content with only the standard appearance. Browser settings hidden behind one button

“Service”, this is not very convenient, because it will take some time to deal with them.

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