Situation after the February Revolution

October socialist revolution of 1917: causes, course of events, results

Plan for studying new material:

Causes and preconditions of the October socialist revolution.

April and July crises of the Provisional Government

Kornilov conspiracy

Bolshevization of the Soviets.

The course of the October armed uprising.

The first decrees of the Soviet power.

Results and significance of the October socialist revolution.

The October Socialist Revolution , or the October Revolution (in Soviet historiography, the name Great October Socialist Revolution was adopted) is an armed coup in Petrograd on October 25–26 (November 7–8, new style), 1917, under the leadership of the Bolshevik Party, as a result of which the Provisional government .

It is one of the largest events of the 20th century, which changed the course of Russian and world history.

Causes and preconditions of the October Revolution of 1917

Situation after the February Revolution

After the February Revolution and the abdication of Nicholas II from the throne, dual power was established in Petrograd between the Provisional Government , which secured executive and legislative powers until the convocation of the Constituent Assembly, and the Petrograd Soviet of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies .

In the spring of 1917, elected bodies of power began to form throughout Russia – Soviets , reflecting the interests of workers, soldiers and peasants.

The provisional government, which initially consisted of liberals, mostly Cadets (the only socialist was A.F. Kerensky, who took the post of Minister of Justice), carried out a number of democratic reforms:

announced an amnesty for political prisoners,

declared freedom of speech, press, assembly and strikes,

Granted universal suffrage, including women, etc.

The political amnesty allowed the leaders of the extreme left forces who were in exile to return to Russia. So, on April 3, the leader of the Bolsheviks, V. I. Lenin, arrives in Petrograd through the territory of Germany in a sealed carriage.

On April 7, in the newspaper Pravda, Lenin published the so-called “April Theses” , in which he criticized the Provisional Government and called for a “socialist” revolution. Nevertheless, the ideas set forth in these theses seemed at that time too radical even to the Bolsheviks themselves.

On April 20, the general public becomes aware of the so-called “Milyukov note” , in which the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Provisional Government, P. N. Milyukov, assured the allies that Russia was true to its obligations and would wage the war to a victorious end.

Numerous demonstrations began in Petrograd with slogans: “Resign Milyukov and Guchkov!”, “Down with the war!”, “All power to the Soviets!” and others.

As a result, in late April – early May, the first (April) crisis of the Provisional Government occurs, A.I. Guchkov and P.N. Petrosoviet, including Social Revolutionary V. M. Chernov and Menshevik I. G. Tsereteli.

V. I. Lenin lashes out at the Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries in order to reduce their influence in the Soviets.

In early May, the leader of the Mensheviks, Yu. O. Martov, and the leader of the Mezhraiontsy, L. D. Trotsky, returned to the capital.

On June 16, 1917, the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of Soviets (VTsIK) was formed, to which the powers of the Petrosoviet were transferred. The leading role in it is played by the Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries, who on the whole were in favor of an alliance of all socialist parties and cooperation with the liberals.

On the same day, the June offensive of the Russian army begins – the last offensive of the Russian troops during the First World War. After short-term successes on the Southwestern Front (the 8th Army of General L. G. Kornilov especially distinguished himself), the offensive was stopped due to the complete disintegration and demoralization of the troops. The offensive was poorly prepared (its main goal was to distract the revolutionary-minded population), it simply failed and led to senseless casualties, which made it possible for the Bolsheviks to attack the Provisional Government with a new wave of criticism.

On July 2, as a sign of disagreement with the negotiations held on the possibilities and terms for granting broad autonomy to Ukraine, the Cadets ministers left the government.

On July 3–5, the troops of the Petrograd garrison, agitated by the Bolsheviks and anarchists, attempted an armed coup. After several bloody skirmishes, the uprising was crushed.

On July 5, Minister of Justice P.N. Pereverzev published documents in which he accused the Bolsheviks of having links with Germany and stated that the uprising “serves German goals.”

After that, the Bolsheviks lost their influence among the workers, soldiers and sailors, and their leaders were charged with treason. V. I. Lenin and G. E. Zinoviev fled to Finland, and L. D. Trotsky was arrested.

This period is called the second or July crisis of the Provisional Government. As a result, on July 7, due to disagreements with the socialist ministers, Prince G.E. Lvov resigned from the post of prime minister. A.F. Kerensky became the new chairman of the government, who by July 24 formed a new coalition government (socialists prevailed in its composition).

Kornilov rebellion . August 25-30. The situation in Petrograd remained tense. Therefore, the hero of the Russo-Japanese and World War I, the hero of the Russian-Japanese and World War I, appointed by the Supreme Commander-in-Chief on July 19, Infantry General L. G. Kornilov, proposed the so-called “Kornilov Military Program” , which was supposed to restore order in the country and the army and prevent the Bolsheviks from coming to power .

In early August, the most reliable military units under the command of Lieutenant General A. M. Krymov advanced in the direction of Petrograd. But Kerensky, who initially supported Kornilov, fearing the establishment of a military dictatorship of the commander-in-chief and the loss of power, on August 26 declared Kornilov a rebel.

As a result, Krymov’s troops were stopped and disarmed by the Red Guards, and Kornilov was arrested and sent to Bykhov prison. Supporters of the establishment of a military dictatorship were identified on all fronts, most were arrested. The Bolsheviks played an important role in disclosing the military conspiracy; by this time they made up the majority in the councils of soldiers’ deputies. After that, Cadets ministers who sympathized with the cause of Kornilov resigned.

Lenin called the incident “an incredibly abrupt turn of events.” The influence of right-wing forces on politics after the failure of the Kornilov speech was practically reduced to zero, and the role of the Petrosoviet, in which by that time the Bolsheviks had restored their positions, increased.

On September 1, a Directory headed by Kerensky was formed, which included four ministers, in addition to the chairman. Without waiting for the convocation of the Constituent Assembly, on the same day the Directory proclaimed Russia a republic.

Be First to Comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.