“Much has been created and written about the fact that every woman shows herself well as a sister of mercy. On the contrary, I believe that these foundations of care are almost unknown, ”F. Nightingale wrote in Notes on Care. These words were spoken more than 100 years ago, but even today the idea of nursing as a profession is constantly changing. This specialty arose and exists to serve society. The role of medical personnel depends on social conditions and health needs.
For a long time, nurses carried out only doctor’s orders. They were strictly forbidden to make independent decisions about the care of patients. However, the development of nursing, the struggle for human rights in the world, including in our country, have become an incentive for changes in one of the main medical professions. The nurse becomes more independent in her work.
Until recently, patient care has been largely intuitive or empirical (with nurses relying more on practical, often routine experience or observation than on scientific research). Through trial and error, the nurse found the means to help the patient, and many nurses became professionals through their growing experience in caring for patients.
Previously, nursing received a scientific basis either from the field of medicine (medical business), or from the field of physiology, biology, psychology, sociology. Now nursing seeks to create its own, unique knowledge base. Some aspects of the practice of patient care are not fully developed and are solved on an intuitive level, but the basis of the scientific approach in this area has already been established and will continue to develop. At the same time, it should be taken into account that “the pace of development of nursing depends on practice, therefore, one can observe significant variations between its various areas, as well as its features in different countries … At various times, sisters performed (and still perform) the work of doctors, nutritionists, cleaners and clerks … All this brings confusion to the understanding of the unique role of the sister, ”wrote F. Nightingale. According to her, one can come to the conclusion that nursing means caring for a person, and not just solving his medical problems – “it is better to know a person in a certain state than the very state that brings him suffering”
Gone are the days when a nurse’s job was basically to help the patient wipe the sweat off their faces. Today, she still follows the doctor’s orders, but is becoming more independent in making an independent decision.
Dr. T. Billroth wrote: “To be able to help the suffering is undoubtedly one of the most beautiful abilities that a person has. But nevertheless, “help” must be elevated to “art”, must combine knowledge and skill, if they want to achieve its full beneficial effect on themselves and others.
Indeed, today nursing is both an art and a science. It requires both understanding and application of special knowledge and skills. Nursing is based on the theory and practice created on the basis of the humanities and natural sciences: biology, medicine, psychology, sociology, etc. The nurse assumes responsibility and acts with appropriate authority, directly performing professional duties, and is responsible for those medical services, which provides. She has the right to decide for herself whether she needs to continue her education in management, teaching, clinical work and research, and to take steps to meet these needs. The mission of nursing in society is to help individuals, families and groups develop and maintain their physical, mental and social potential at an appropriate level, regardless of changing living and working conditions. This requires nurses to work to promote and maintain health, as well as disease prevention.
New nursing is a need to change the basis of current practice. The organization of nursing activities is based on the fulfillment of doctor’s prescriptions, on care that pays attention to the individual needs of the patient.
The new concept will replace the long established hierarchical and bureaucratic organization of nursing with a professional model. A highly qualified nurse practitioner must have sufficient knowledge and skills to plan, implement and evaluate care that meets the needs of a particular patient. At the same time, special emphasis is placed on the unique contribution of nursing care to the recovery and restoration of the patient’s health.