The process of perception is based on the combined work of many analyzers. Depending on the number of analyzers involved in this process, perception is usually divided into simple and complex.
Simple perceptions include those that are associated with the work of predominantly one analyzer. It should be borne in mind that simple perception may be the result of inaccurate reflection. So, the simulated improvement of the settlement for the arrival of a high-ranking person can be perceived as valid. It was on this feature of simple perception that the famous “Potemkin villages” were founded.
Complex perceptions include those that are associated with the work of visual, auditory, olfactory and other analyzers at the same time. An example of such perception is the journalist’s perception of the situation of an extreme situation (armed conflict, terrorist action, man-made disaster, etc.). Here, the media representative must perceive the situation with as many senses as possible.
Perception is the link between sensation and thought.
In perception, there are processes characteristic of thinking:
analysis (information about the reflected object comes from various analyzers);
synthesis (as a result of the combined work of analyzers);
comparison (perceived correlates with the data of past experience).
Acting as a link between sensation and thought, perception also experiences the reverse influence of thought. Due to the action of this regularity, the rational in the minds of people becomes an important factor in the organization of perception.
In the process of organizing perception, irrational moments are also important in the form of habits, prejudices, stereotypes, the influence of opinion leaders, the prestige of the source of information, etc.
Perception, performing the most important function of the connection between sensation and thought, bears the signs of both. In any single image of perception there is always a generalization. If perception did not have this psychological function, the very existence of journalism would not be possible. It would not be possible to turn a particular fact of reality into a generalized socially significant thought, and the concrete signs of an event, personality traits, and signs of a situation into an abstract conclusion, correlated with the values of life and culture. Perception can be considered as a bridge connecting sensations – an elementary cognitive process with thinking – the highest cognitive process.
Types of perception
Depending on the analyzers, the following types of perception are distinguished: visual; tactile; auditory; kinesthetic; olfactory; taste; temperature.
There are three types of people with characteristic features of information perception for each of them: “visuals”, “audils”, “kinesthetics”. The “visuals” are people who perceive most of the information with the help of vision. People who perceive most of the information through the auditory analyzer are referred to as “audil”. Those whose leading channel of perception of information are feelings, sensations, are called “kinesthetics”. (Some researchers also distinguish a fourth type – “discretes” – these are those who perceive information through logical comprehension with the help of numbers, signs, logical arguments). The ability to determine the leading world of perception in a person is especially important for a journalist when building communication with him.
In mass communication, visual and auditory perceptions are mainly used, although the reader is not indifferent to the density of a newspaper sheet and the smell of printing ink.
Different types of perception can be synchronized, such as when receiving information from a television screen, network media. At the same time, one of the types of perception becomes the leading one and determines all the others. So, experiments have shown that sitting in front of the TV, a person can be at the mercy of the screen and his hearing will perceive only that, and only as the eye tells him.
The perception of information coming to a person from the media is supplemented by the work of the imagination. For example, people perceive a thunderstorm in the open air with the help of synchronous sensations – visual, auditory, tactile (drops of water on the face) and olfactory (the smell of ozone in the air). The perception of the artistic depiction of a thunderstorm in a radio show is limited only by the auditory sensation. It should evoke in the memory of the listener the image of the phenomenon, despite the absence of all other sensations. (6).