- analysis of available information;
- collection and study of information;
- search for the best way to achieve the goal of the project (analysis of alternative solutions), construction of an activity algorithm;
- drawing up a project implementation plan: step-by-step work planning;
- resource analysis.
- execution of planned technological operations;
- current quality control;
- making (if necessary) changes to the design and technology.
§ Preparation of presentation materials;
§ Project presentation;
§ Studying the possibilities of using the results of the project (exhibition, sale, inclusion in the bank of projects, publication).
- analysis of the results of the project;
- assessment of the quality of the project.
How to choose a topic?
In order to start a project, you need to find a problem that you can investigate and that you would like to solve. She will tell you how to formulate the topic of research. What does it mean to find a problem?
How to spot problems
The ancient Greek word “problema” is translated as “task”, “obstacle”, “difficulty”. The ability to see a problem is sometimes valued more than the ability to solve it.
The main task of any researcher is to find something unusual in the ordinary, to see the complexities and contradictions where everything seems familiar, clear and simple to others. The easiest way to develop the ability to see problems is to learn to look at the same objects from different points of view.
Think and write down the problems that interest you.
Questions to help you choose a topic
Choosing a topic is not difficult if you know exactly what interests you at the moment, what problem worries you more than others. If you can’t immediately understand what you would like to know about, try asking yourself the following questions:
1. What interests me the most?
2. What do I want to do first (for example, mathematics or poetry, astronomy or history)?
3. What do I do most often in my free time?
4. What makes me get better grades in school?
5. What did you want to learn more about at school?
6. Is there anything I am particularly proud of?
If these questions don’t help, ask your teachers, ask your parents, talk to your classmates about it. Maybe someone will come up with an interesting idea.
The theme of the project must be written down.
What could be research topics?
All topics can be conditionally grouped into three groups:
fantastic – topics about non-existent, fantastic objects and phenomena;
experimental – topics that involve conducting their own observations and experiments;
theoretical – topics for the study and generalization of information, facts, materials contained in various theoretical sources: books, films, etc.
Relevance, reflection of topical problems of modern science and practice, compliance with the urgent needs of society;
content, informativeness and elaboration in science;
the ability to search for a sufficient amount of literature, the presence of an element of novelty (the work to some extent should go beyond what has been studied, because only then can it arouse interest;
· the wording of the topic should contain some controversial point, imply a clash of different points of view on one problem. Such a “problem” can already be reflected in the very title of the work or in its subtitles;
the title of the work may not include the word problem, but, nevertheless, the problem should be implied;
The topic must be specific.
Possible sources of the problem can be contradictions:
- between the known and the unknown;
- between knowledge and skills;
- between the complexity of the problem and the availability of a way to solve it;
- between needs and opportunities for their implementation
Problem situations arise where there is a discrepancy between existing knowledge and new requirements. An example of such a contradiction is the discovery of new facts that do not fit into known theories, an even more typical case of this contradiction is the discrepancy between worldly ideas and scientific knowledge.
Simply put, the situation can become problematic if:
- there are conflicts that need to be resolved,
- it is necessary to establish similarities and differences,
- it is important to establish causal relationships,
- justify the choice
- it is required to confirm the patterns with examples from one’s own experience and examples from experience – with theoretical patterns,
- the task is to identify the advantages and disadvantages of a particular solution.
The problem must be taken from real life, familiar and meaningful for the student, its solution must be important for the student.
– Discusses the topic.
– Identifies your needs.
– Makes a decision on the topic of the project as part of a group (or independently) and argues for his choice.
– Looks for contradictions, formulates (possibly with the help of a teacher) a problem.
– Formulates (individually or as a result of group discussion) the goal of the project.
After setting the goal of the project, first of all at this stage it is necessary to determine what information is needed to achieve it (implementation of the project).
Younger teenagers tend to be aware of what information and on what issue they have, and what they do not. Therefore, it is more expedient for the teacher to focus on how competently students use the method known to them or proposed by the teacher to obtain information from several sources.
The student specifies his intentions by describing the desired situation for him. At the same time, in elementary school, he can only outline what he wants to change, later the student specifies the most important features of the ideal situation for him, and in high school he correlates his interests with the interests of other people whom this situation concerns.
Then the student considers the existing situation, describing it in elementary school in general terms, later – in more detail, with elements of analysis (highlighting characteristics, establishing cause-and-effect relationships, etc.). This often requires additional information search.
Based on the analysis of the situation, the student can pose (with the help of a teacher, and later – independently) a problem or specify the problem with which he came to the project. The statement of the problem is preceded by the identification of contradictions between the real and the desired situation.
Then the student analyzes the problem, highlighting (at the initial stages with the help of the teacher) the causes and (in high school) the consequences of its existence, determining whether this or that problem can be solved for him (can he eliminate the reasons for its existence on his own), whether he is interested someone other than him in solving this problem. This work allows you to more accurately define the thematic field of the project.
To determine the purpose of the study means to answer to ourselves and others the question of why we are doing it.
Based on the problem identified by the student, he sets the goal of his project. The goal answers the question: “WHAT should be changed in the real situation (so that it coincides with the ideal one, from the student’s point of view)?” Having defined the goal, the student suggests one or more ways to achieve it (answers the question: “HOW?”).
When the goal of the project is clear to students, work should be organized to identify tasks that indicate intermediate results and answer the question of WHAT should appear (be done) in order for the goal of the project to be achieved (for the result to be obtained). Tasks can be solved in a different sequence (sometimes a group can work on solving several problems in parallel), they should not be confused with the stages of work (collecting information, making an object, preparing materials for a presentation, etc.).
Research objectives usually specify its purpose. If the goal indicates the general direction of research activity, then the tasks describe the main steps of the researcher.
Then each task is broken down into steps (individual actions that the student performs completely in a limited period of time). The student then draws up a work plan, arranging the steps in the required sequence, taking into account that some actions he will not be able to complete without first completing other steps. Based on the list of steps received, the student can plan the resources necessary for their implementation (including informational ones).
As a rule, students report meeting or breaking deadlines, their successes or failures.
Any project must end with the creation of a product that must be planned. Younger students describe the product, name its characteristics that seem important to them for the intended use of the product. Adolescents plan the use of the product by potential consumers, high school students give recommendations on the use of the received product by others, indicate the boundaries of the use of the product, and plan the promotion of the product.
It should be noted that the purpose of the project activity cannot be reduced to obtaining a product. A product is always needed for something, it is a means. The goal may not contain an indication of the product, and if it contains such an indication, it should be clear how this means will allow the student to achieve his goal.
Often the opposite occurs. The purpose of the project is to convince someone of something, to resolve the contradiction in the information available, to make a decision about something. Then the student is primarily interested in the result, not the product.
– Conducts search, collection, systematization and analysis of information.
– Enters into communicative relations in order to obtain information.
– Makes a choice.
– Carries out the planning process.
– Evaluates resources.
– Defines its place (role) in the project.
– Represents the product of his (group) activity at this stage.
– Conducts an assessment (self-assessment) of the results of this stage of work.
A hypothesis is an assumption that has not yet been proven logically and has not yet been confirmed by experience. The word “hypothesis” comes from the ancient Greek “hypothesis” – the basis, assumption, judgment about the natural connection of phenomena. Hypotheses usually begin with the words “suppose”, “let’s say”, “possibly”, “if … then …”.
To solve a problem, you need a hypothesis or several hypotheses – assumptions about how the problem can be solved.
As a result of the study, the hypothesis is confirmed or refuted. If confirmed, it becomes a theory, and if it is refuted, then the hypothesis turns into a false assumption.
Write down your hypothesis. If there are several hypotheses, then they must be numbered, putting the most important in the first place, the least important in the second, and so on.
At this stage, students implement the planned steps (actions), perform current control. When working on a project, students implement (master) various technologies of activity, new ways of activity ( video filming, working with a computer, conducting sociological research, welding, etc.).
At this stage, the degree of independence of students is the highest, and the teacher acts mainly as a consultant.
– Performs planned activities independently, in a group or in a combined mode.
– Carries out current self-control and discusses its results.
– If necessary, consults with the teacher (expert).
Ask other people
People with whom you should talk about the subject of research can be divided into two groups: specialists and non-specialists.
1. We will classify as specialists everyone who is professionally engaged in what you are researching. It can be scientists, for example, a professor from a university or an employee of a research institute. It’s hard to find them at school. But you can call them or write a letter by sending it by mail or e-mail.
A teacher can also be a specialist. For example, a teacher of physics or astronomy can tell a lot about space that is not included in regular school programs.
Dad, and mom, and grandfather, and grandmother can turn out to be specialists. For example, when examining the nature of the armament of the special forces, you remember that your grandfather was an officer. This means that he may well be an expert.
2. Other people will be non-specialists for you. It’s also good to ask them. It may well be that one of them knows something very important about what you are studying.
For example, you are developing a project for a new technology for planting potatoes and ask your grandmother about it, who works as a math teacher at school. And she tells how she read about the experiment of the teacher A. Ivanov. In the 80s of the last century in St. Petersburg (Leningrad), his student invented a method of planting potatoes in a nylon net, which is now used in many countries. Here’s a non-specialist!
Write down information received from other people.
An interesting and accessible way of obtaining new knowledge is observation. We must understand and remember that everyone can watch and listen, but not everyone is able to see and hear. We look with our eyes, we listen with our ears, and we see and hear with our minds.
For example, everyone can see how children behave during recess at school; see how they move; listen to the sounds they make. But only a smart, observant researcher, looking at the behavior of his classmates at school, can make many interesting conclusions, judgments and conclusions.
For observations, man has created many devices: simple magnifiers, binoculars, spyglasses, telescopes, microscopes, periscopes, night vision devices. There are devices and devices that enhance our ability to distinguish between sounds and even electromagnetic waves. This must be remembered and all this can also be used in your research.
Write down the information you get from your observations.
To make an experiment
The word “experiment” comes from the Latin “experimentum” and is translated into Russian as “trial, experience.” This is the leading method of knowledge in most sciences. With its help, under strictly controlled and controlled conditions, a variety of phenomena are investigated.
An experiment assumes that you are actively influencing what you are researching. So, for example, you can experimentally determine at what temperature different liquids freeze (water, milk, diesel fuel, etc.); how quickly your puppy or kitten is able to learn new commands; how your parrot relates to various music; what vegetables and fruits your turtle loves the most.
Describe first the plans, and then the results of your experiments.
Each project must end with the receipt of some product: a video film, an album, a newspaper, a bulletin, a winter garden, an almanac, an apparatus, a site, a costume, a statement of claim, a layout, a dictionary, an electromagnet, an atlas, a layout, a traveling exhibition, a family tree, an electric motor, collection of medicinal herbs, etc.
It is possible that the product of the project activity may be an abstract, but such a form of independent work as the preparation of an abstract is built according to other laws, using a different technology than work on a project. Writing an essay is aimed rather at expanding or deepening knowledge, developing general educational skills, and not at solving a personally significant problem for the student.
Preparing for the Defense
All information was collected, all necessary calculations and observations were made, experiments were carried out. Now you need to briefly state the most important thing on paper and tell people about it. Moreover, all your thoughts, new ideas and information must be proven. Therefore, scientists say that the results of the study should not just be reported – they should be protected.
This will require:
• to define the main concepts used in the study;
• classify the main objects, processes, phenomena and events;
• identify and identify all the paradoxes you have noticed;
• rank the main ideas of the study;
• offer comparisons and metaphors;
• develop judgments and conclusions;
• draw conclusions based on the results of the study;
• indicate possible ways of further study of the studied phenomenon or object;
• prepare the text of the speech;
• prepare texts, layouts, diagrams, drawings and other manuals;
• Prepare to answer questions.
How to do it?
1. Define the main concepts used in the study
Concepts are short and precise descriptions of objects. They record the most important, stable properties and features of objects. When preparing to defend your research paper, be sure to think about how you can summarize the main concepts of your research.
How to learn to define concepts? There are techniques that are very similar to the definition of concepts. Take advantage of them.
A description is a simple enumeration of the external features of an object with the aim of not strictly distinguishing it from objects similar to it. The description usually includes both essential and non-essential features.
To describe an object means to answer the questions: “What is it?”, “How is this object different from others?”, “How is this object similar to others?”
A characteristic involves listing only some of the internal, essential properties of an object, and not just its appearance, as is done with the help of a description.
For example, let’s try to characterize a giraffe: “A giraffe is a good-natured animal, it never offends anyone. He has kind eyes and very small horns.
Clarification by example is used when it is easier to give an example or examples that illustrate a given concept than to give a strict definition of it. For example, toys are dolls, cars, cubes, balls, etc.; minerals are coal, oil, gas, etc.
Comparison allows you to identify similarities and differences between objects. People at all times, wanting to understand how the universe works, turned to comparison. The chemist and physician who lived in the Renaissance, Paracelsus (1493-1541) compared the world with a pharmacy, the great playwright William Shakespeare argued that the whole world is a theater, many modern scientists compare the human brain with a computer.
Discrimination makes it possible to establish the difference between a given object and objects similar to it. For example, an apple and a tomato are very similar, but an apple is a fruit and a tomato is a vegetable, an apple has one flavor and a tomato has another, and so on.
2. Classify the main objects, processes, phenomena and events
Classification is the division of objects and phenomena on the basis of common essential features. Classification breaks the objects in question into groups to put them in order, and gives your thinking rigor and precision.
Classification can be either simple or multi-stage, branched. For example, we classify the gifts of summer grown in the country into vegetables and fruits – this is a simple one-stage classification. Another example – we classify the signs that a person usually uses to communicate information: letters, numbers, hieroglyphs, symbols. In turn, the letters can be divided into Cyrillic and Latin; numbers – into Roman and Arabic; hieroglyphs – into Chinese, Japanese, Korean; symbols – on mathematical and musical. As you can see, this is a multi-stage classification. Every classification has a purpose. The choice of the basis of classification depends on it. Since there can be a lot of goals, the same group of objects can be classified on different grounds.
3. Identify and label any paradoxes you see
A paradox is a statement that differs sharply from generally accepted opinions or observations. The word paradox is derived from the Greek “paradoxos” – unexpected, strange, incredible. In the modern sense, two opposing statements are called a paradox, for each of which there are convincing arguments.
It is known, for example, that according to the laws of aerodynamics, the cockchafer cannot fly. The mass of his body, the area of the wings and other characteristics should not allow this. But, perhaps, because the beetle does not know the laws of aerodynamics, and perhaps for other reasons, it flies. Paradox.
Here are a few more paradoxes familiar to everyone: metal sinks in water, but why are ship hulls made of metal; metal is heavier than air, but why planes are made of metal and they fly.
In the text of your report on the study, you must note all the paradoxes you found.
4. Rank the main ideas
The word “ranking” comes from the word “rank”. Translated from German, it means rank, rank, rank. To rank ideas means to rank them in order of importance, that is, to determine which idea is the most important, which takes the second place in importance, which takes the third place, and so on.
The ability to separate the main ideas from the secondary ones is the most important feature of the thinking mind.
5. Suggest comparisons and metaphors
The material obtained in the study will be better perceived by others if examples are given, comparisons and comparisons are made, metaphors are used. A metaphor is a figure of speech that contains a hidden assimilation, a figurative convergence of words based on their figurative meaning.
6. Make judgments and inferences
A judgment is a statement about objects or phenomena, consisting of the affirmation or denial of something. To think means to make judgments. On the basis of the study, it is necessary to express your own judgments about what was studied.
Inference is a form of thinking by which new knowledge is derived from what is already known. Inference allows thinking to penetrate into the depths of objects and phenomena that are hidden from direct observation.
Judgment and inference are indispensable when you draw conclusions about the results of your own research work. It is important that they are accurate and based on the facts obtained in the study.
7. Draw conclusions from the results of the study
The study loses its meaning if the researcher has not drawn conclusions and summed up his results.
8. Indicate possible ways to further study the phenomenon or object under consideration
For a true creator, the completion of one work does not simply mean the end of research – it is the beginning of the work of the next. Therefore, it is necessary to note what and how in this direction can be explored in the future.
9. Prepare the text of the speech
In order to better and more fully convey your ideas to those who will consider the results of the research work, it is necessary to prepare the text of the report. It should be concise and is best structured like this:
1) why this topic was chosen;
2) what was the purpose of the study;
3) what tasks were set;
4) what hypotheses were tested;
5) what methods and means of research were used;
6) what was the research plan;
7) what results were obtained;
8) what conclusions are drawn from the results of the study;
9) what can be explored further in this direction.
Write down the text of the report.
10. Prepare texts, layouts, diagrams, drawings and other manuals
For example, you explored the routes of ants in a nearby park, designed a residential building of the future, a spaceship for tourist trips, or a new state-of-the-art submarine. Your report will be better received if you make a layout, drawing or drawing of the object of your research.
And if you have studied how the location of the student in the classroom (that is, at which desk he sits) affects his academic success, and offer new ways to arrange desks in the classroom, then be sure to draw a diagram of how, in your opinion, should be placed students in the classroom so that they all learn well.
Draw sketches of diagrams, drawings, layouts, etc.
When making visual materials – layouts, diagrams, drawings, drawings, you need to understand that they can not only show the strengths of the work done, but also reveal weaknesses in your research.
11. Prepare to answer questions
It is accepted in the scientific world that the defense of a research work is an open event and anyone can attend it. All those present can ask questions to the author of the study. You should be prepared to answer them. In order to do this, one must anticipate what questions might be asked. Of course, you can never predict all the questions, but you can be sure that they will ask about the basic concepts and demand their clear formulations. As a rule, they ask how this or that information was obtained and on what basis this or that conclusion was made.
When preparing to answer questions, remember that the main guarantee of your successful answers is fluency in your research material.
– Selects (suggests) the form of presentation.
– Preparing and conducting presentations.
– If necessary, consults with the teacher (expert).
– Acts as an expert, i.e. asks questions and makes critical remarks (when presenting other groups/students).