INSTRUCTIONS FOR WORKING WITH THE PROJECT (RESEARCH)
A special form of organizing the activities of students is an educational research or educational project.
An educational project is a complex of search, research, calculation, graphic, technical and other types of work performed by students on their own with the aim of practical or theoretical solution of a significant problem.
The project involves the creation of new, previously non-existent objects or the change of known objects in order to obtain new properties and characteristics. During the design process, an object with specified qualities is created. A materialized product appears. One of the main criteria for the effectiveness of project activities is the practical significance of the work performed.
Educational research is a type of independent analytical work of students, associated with a systematic study of a certain issue and assuming the presence of a certain logic and structure. It is characterized by objectivity, reproducibility, evidence and accuracy.
The study does not aim to change the surrounding world and involves only its knowledge. In the course of the study, new knowledge is discovered, “received”. There is no materialized product (article, abstract, report, message – this is a “form of packaging” of new knowledge).
The didactic goal of educational design, educational research is the development of a certain set of skills (primarily meta-subject) and knowledge on a certain range of issues.
Stages of work on a training project (research)
Determining the theme of the project (research)
Choice of research area. Formulation of a “super-problem” from the general “everything is interesting.” The first limitation of the space of the idea and further activities.
For example, “Assessment of the state of the environment of the Urals” or “Traditions of the indigenous peoples of the Urals.”
“Determine the level of pollution of the river N” – the topic of the study.
“Develop a project to clean up the river N” – the theme of the project.
“Wedding traditions of the Komi-Permyaks as an element of the modern wedding ceremony” – the topic of the study.
The topic is the perspective from which the problem is considered. It represents the object of study in a certain aspect, characteristic of this topic.
The main criteria for choosing a topic:
The topic is of interest to the student, is directly related to the future specialty he has previously chosen;
· the topic should be implemented in the existing conditions, i.e. equipment and literature should be available on the chosen topic.
The correct formulation and clear formulation of the topic is very important. It determines the research strategy, the direction of scientific research.
Statement of the problem or justification of the relevance of the topic
The topic should be interesting for the student, relevant, feasible in the existing conditions and lie within the framework of the academic discipline. To substantiate the relevance means to explain the need to study this topic in the context of the general process of scientific knowledge. Relevance may consist in the need to obtain new data, the need to test new methods, etc.
The goal is a specific, qualitatively, and if possible quantitatively, image of the desired (expected) result, which can actually be achieved by a clearly defined point in time. This is the answer to the question why this experiment is being carried out. The student must formulate the significance of the result that he hopes to get after the completion of the work.
The goal may be research, or it may be design. It all depends on the wording.
When formulating a goal, it is recommended to use verbs in an indefinite form: “study”, “determine”, “develop”, “identify”, “establish”, “justify”, “disassemble” …
Tasks are the formulated necessary stages of work. Solving problems sequentially leads to the achievement of the goal. Tasks do not have to be chronologically arranged.
For example, research tasks :
Determine the significant parameters of river pollution – N.
· To test and work out the method of biotesting of the river N.
· Carry out water sampling and pre-treatment.
· Assess the contribution of runoff from fields to the overall picture of pollution.
Choice of object and subject of research (not necessary for the project)
The object of study is considered as a specification of the area of study. Selecting an object allows you to move from planning a general scheme to creating a study plan.
The object of study is what will be taken for study and research. It may not necessarily be any inanimate object or living being. The object of research can be a process or phenomenon of reality.
Usually the name of the object of study is contained in the answer to the question: what is being considered?
The subject of research is a special problem, separate aspects of the object, its properties and features, which, without going beyond the object under study, will be investigated in the work.
Usually the name of the subject of research is contained in the answer to the question: what is being studied?
The choice of the subject of research is determined both by the adequacy of the purpose of the study, and by the real methodological possibilities of the study. The choice of the subject of research to a large extent connects the purpose of the research and the actual research activity.
In each object, several subjects of study can be distinguished.
The object of the study is the traditional family holidays of the Komi-Permyaks.
The subject of the study is the national and general Russian traditions of the wedding ceremony.