Sample answer to problem N 22

1. Acute allergic reaction: urticaria.

2. Algorithm of actions:

a) eliminate the allergen (chocolate),

b) wash the stomach, introduce activated charcoal;

c) make a cleansing enema;

d) introduce an antihistamine drug, as prescribed by a doctor, 1% solution of diphenhydramine 0.5 ml or suprastin or tavegil intramuscularly;

Sample answer to problem N 23

1. Intestinal toxicosis with exsicosis.

2. Algorithm for providing emergency care:

a) at the prehospital stage, start oral rehydration with a teaspoonful of rehydron solution every 4 minutes (liquid calculation 50 ml/kg).

e) hospitalize the child in the Central District Hospital, accompanied by a medical worker;

Sample answer to problem N 24

1. Hypoglycemic state.

2. Algorithm for providing emergency care:

a) give the child a glass of sweet tea, eat a piece of sugar, a white bun.

b) if the condition does not improve, inject 40% glucose solution intravenously as prescribed by the doctor

c) hospitalize the child in the pediatric endocrinology department.

Sample answer to problem N 25

1. Meningococcal infection, meningococcemia.

2. Algorithm for performing emergency care:

At the prehospital stage, enter as prescribed by the doctor:

a) chloramphenicol – sodium succinate 25 mg/kg intramuscularly;

b) prednisolone 2-4 mg/kg intramuscularly;

c) 50% solution of analgin 0.1 ml/year of life intramuscularly;

d) urgently hospitalize in the nearest infectious disease hospital.

Sample answer to problem N 26

1. Bronchial asthma, attack period.

2. Algorithm of actions:

a) calm the child;

b) access to fresh air, oxygen therapy;

c) warm drink;

d) inhalation of one of the bronchodilators: salbutamol, ventolin, berotek – 1-2 doses until the attack is relieved with an interval of 20-30 minutes, but not more than 8 doses that you received earlier

i) inform the local doctor immediately.

Sample answer to problem N 27

1. Spasmophilia. Laryngospasm.

2. Algorithm of emergency care:

a) create a calm environment;

b) provide access to fresh air;

c) remove tight clothing;

d) sprinkle cold water on the face, sharply press on the root of the tongue with a spatula;

f) in the absence of effect, according to the doctor’s prescription, inject 0.5% solution of seduxen 0.3 ml intramuscularly and 10% solution of calcium gluconate 1.0 ml intramuscularly;

g) to be hospitalized in a children’s hospital by ambulance.

Sample answer to problem N 28

1. Foreign body entering the respiratory tract (foreign body of the trachea)

2. Algorithm of actions:

– call an ambulance brigade “on yourself” through an intermediary;

– try to remove the foreign body from the respiratory tract: hold the child upside down, and apply 3-4 blows between the shoulder blades with the edge of the palm or perform the Heimlich maneuver; if necessary, repeat the procedure 3-4 times;

– if it is impossible to remove a foreign body and stop breathing – IVL;

Sample answer to problem N 29

1. Drowning, respiratory arrest due to aspiration

2. Algorithm of emergency care:

– free the airways from water, foam, turning the child upside down, taking him by the legs;

– start ventilation “mouth to mouth”, “mouth to nose” with a frequency of 30-35 times per 1 minute;

– conduct an indirect heart massage;

– warm the child;

– Urgently hospitalize in the nearest intensive care unit.

Sample answer to problem N 30

1. The child has habitual constipation.

2. Algorithm of actions of a nurse:

– explain to the mother the possible causes of constipation in the child;

– explain the need for a gas outlet tube or a cleansing enema;

– prepare everything you need and conduct a cleansing enema;

– teach the mother how to massage the abdomen and the rules of rational feeding;

– inform the doctor about the child’s condition

Sample answer to problem N 31

1. As a result of prolonged standing in one position, the child fainted.

2. Algorithm of nurse actions:

a) lay the child horizontally with raised legs in order to facilitate blood flow to the brain.

b) release from tight clothing, unfasten the collar, loosen the belt, in order to facilitate breathing

c) provide access to fresh air, in order to enrich the air with oxygen.

d) give a sniff of a cotton wool moistened with ammonia, in order to excite the respiratory center.

e) Sprinkle the face and chest with cold water in order to reflex excite the respiratory center.

f) in the absence of effect, according to the doctor’s prescription, introduce cordiamine or caffeine in a dose in order to restore vascular tone and increase blood pressure.

g) re-evaluate breathing, pulse, blood pressure in order to control the condition.

h) provide the child with a doctor’s consultation in order to exclude diseases accompanied by fainting.

LITERATURE

1. Ezhova N.V. “Pediatrics”, Minsk, 1997.

2. Sevastyanova N.G. “Nursing in pediatrics” ANMI, M., 2002.

3. Sokolova N.G. “Nursing in Pediatrics: Workshop”. Rostov-on-Don “Phoenix”, 2002.

4. Tulchinskaya V.D. “Nursing in Pediatrics”, Rostov-on-Don “Phoenix”, 2000.

5. Tulchinskaya V.D. “Family Nurse. Pediatrics, Rostov-on-Don Phoenix, 2003.

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