Russian Federation (1994-1999)

The features that characterize the features of the formation of youth policy in Russia in the context of the transition to a market economy include the following:

1 The youth policy was implemented in accordance with the Main Directions of the State Youth Policy in the Russian Federation, approved by the Resolution of the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation on June 3, 1993

2 Further formation of the legal base of the state youth policy as a practical instrument of state activity.

The adoption of the federal law was conditioned, first of all, by the need to build the legal foundations of the GMP. The federal law of direct action was supposed to combine disparate normative acts relating to youth policy, systematizing and prioritizing its direction in the new conditions, legislatively delineate powers in the field of youth policy between federal, regional and local authorities, consolidate the main obligations of the state to young citizens.

The presence of a separate law regulating the direction of the policy of the state, gives it a higher status among many others. The adoption of the law on youth immediately raises and shows the significance and seriousness of this direction for the state.

Only a federal law can give youth policy the status of not only an integral, but also a priority part of Russia’s social policy.

The adoption of the law was also dictated by the need to unify youth legislation across the federation.

In contrast to the federal one, laws on youth had already been adopted by 1996 at the regional level: in Bashkiria (1991), in the Republic of Tatarstan (1993), in the Orenburg region (1995), in the Moscow region (1995). .), in the Republic of Dagestan (1996)

By 1999, laws on youth or

youth policy, which were developed on the basis of the law “On the general principles of state youth policy in the USSR” and the resolution of the Supreme Council “On the main directions of youth policy in the Russian Federation”.

Thus, there is a need to overcome the existing gap.

The draft law “On the Fundamentals of the State Youth Policy in the Russian Federation” began to be developed back in 1994, but was submitted to the Duma only in 1998 by a group of deputies of the Committee on Women, Family and Youth Affairs.

The concept of the bill was based on the following principles:

− the obligation of the state to create socio-economic and organizational conditions to ensure the social development of young people, the realization of their economic, intellectual, spiritual potential;

− priority and necessity of long-term investments in the state support of youth over short-term measures of social support;

– highlighting several priority areas in the GMP: ensuring health care, education, civic-patriotic education, employment, support for a young family.

The goals of the GMP were education, social development, spiritual and physical development of young people; creation of legal, socio-economic conditions for young citizens to choose their way of life and achieve personal success (excluded by the time of the revision of the second reading), the implementation of socially useful initiatives, programs and projects put forward by them.

In addition, the draft law delimited the powers between the federal center and the subjects of the Federation in the field of GMF, determined the mechanisms for the implementation and forms of management of the GMF.

The program-target approach has become the main mechanism for the implementation of the GMF.

This law was adopted by the State Duma.

Approved by the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly, but on November 25, 1999, rejected by the President of the Russian Federation.

The position of the Presidential Administration regarding the bill “On the Fundamentals of the State Youth Policy in the Russian Federation” after its adoption by the State Duma and the Federation Council was brought to the attention of the legislators. The reason for the rejection of the bill by the President is explained by the explanations of the Government that the adoption of the bill is untimely due to excessive “cost”.

Researchers consider this situation from two points of view.

So, the chairman of the temporary commission on youth affairs of the Federation Council S.F. Ryabukhin noted: “The basis for the implementation of the state youth policy should be a law relating to all aspects of the life and work of young people.

The basic federal law will establish the goals, principles and priorities of the state youth policy, determine the powers of federal authorities and authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation in the field of state youth policy, the principle of its formation and its implementation.

The studies of the second half of the 1990s reflected the second

point of view according to which the need to adopt a unified federal

the law was far from clear. It was believed that there was hardly any reason to evaluate the absence of a law on state youth policy only negatively. Researchers recognize the positive aspects of its presence: the legislative consolidation of provisions that are binding on the entire territory is “the highest guarantee for the implementation of the state youth policy.”

However, they are inclined to think that the way out of the situation may be in the adoption of appropriate laws on youth policy by the subjects of the Federation. In particular, it was stated: “… the federal law will not solve all the problems of youth, especially of a local nature, and, therefore, there is an urgent need for the adoption of laws on youth by the constituent entities of the Russian Federation.”

In May 1995, parliamentary hearings were held in the State Duma

“On the Implementation of the State Youth Policy in the Russian Federation”, which contributed to the adoption in July of the same year of the Federal Law “On State Support for Youth and Children’s Associations”.

It remains to this day the only federal legislative

an act aimed at the development of the youth movement and its support from the state. It was a serious step forward in the legislative provision of the youth sphere.

It is especially important that this Federal Law, for the first time in the practice of Russian legislation, fixed the mechanisms for implementing the principle of subsidiarity, i.e. transfer of financial resources to the level of solving a social problem that is most closely related to its carriers.

The laws “On non-profit organizations” (01/12/1996) and “On public associations” (05/19/1995), although they were more aimed at regulating the activities of socio-political entities and corresponded to the spirit of the mid-1990s, have become a serious component legislation regarding public youth organizations.

The Law “On charitable activities and charitable organizations” (August 11, 1995) had a certain relation to the youth sphere in the part related to volunteering.

By 1999, 21 constituent entities of the Russian Federation had regional laws regulating state support for youth and children’s public associations.

At this stage, a network of government bodies implementing youth policy was formed.

For example, in 1997, 88 bodies and representatives for youth affairs of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, including 3 specialized ministries, dealt directly with these problems in the country; 7 state committees; 42 departments, departments and committees for youth affairs; 9 departments for youth affairs; 24 departments, departments, committees and divisions within other administrations; one public-state committee on youth affairs; 2 advisers to the services of heads of administrations.

In general, in Russia, there were about 15 thousand employees in state and municipal institutions for working with youth. Although it is this number of employees that indicates a rather limited personnel potential for the implementation of the state youth policy.

It should also be noted that at the second stage of the implementation of the youth policy, there was insufficient funding for events, most decisions and resolutions were of a declarative or recommendatory nature – all this did not affect the youth environment in the best way. The solution of certain problems of youth directly depended on the positions of central and local authorities and the availability of appropriate amounts in the budget.

It should also be recognized that the formation and implementation of youth policy, the intensification of legislative activity in relation to youth were more often initiated

power structures on the eve of the next elections or possible socio-political instability. Most of the documents did not solve acute

problems of the younger generation in the context of active reform of the social system. Solving such important tasks of the GMP as equalizing the demographic situation, improving social and living conditions, increasing the income level of young people and young families, providing secondary and seasonal employment, forming youth labor resources, reducing the number of divorces, and reducing the level of asocial manifestations among young people ( homelessness and neglect of children and adolescents, unemployment, mortality, drug addiction and alcoholism), improving the health of the younger generation, increasing the spiritual, moral, intellectual and creative potential of the younger generation, turned out to be unfulfilled.

The foreseen activities could not ensure the fulfillment of the tasks set.

In addition, the legal framework itself in certain areas required further improvement. First of all, this concerns the creation of guaranteed conditions for obtaining a full-fledged general and vocational education, creating a family, engaging in social and professional activities, organizing leisure activities, and improving the health of the younger generation.

Realizing the scale of the tasks set, the Government has laid the program-target method in the basis of youth policy.

Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 1922 dated September 15, 1994 laid the foundation for the first federal program ” Youth of Russia” – a social mechanism for implementing state youth policy at the federal level.

By Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of August 15, 1997 No. 890, she receives

presidential status.

The federal target program “Youth of Russia” was one of the social programs of the federal level implemented by state authorities. This is an important regulatory document that defines the content of the main activities for the implementation of the state youth policy, creates legal and organizational conditions for coordinating the efforts of the executive authorities of the Russian Federation and the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, and also influences the actions of local government.

The program “Youth of Russia” included four subprograms,

which have accumulated:

− “creation of a system of information support for youth” (aims to create a permanent information system of adapted information on the main social aspects: rights and opportunities in the field of work, education and health, family; legal protection and social support for youth, reduction

level of neglect, delinquency, drug addiction and alcoholism in

youth environment);

− “solution of the socio-economic problems of youth” (outlines ways to solve the housing problems of young people, determines measures to support a young family, mechanisms to promote entrepreneurial activity and youth employment);

− “ensuring the conditions for the spiritual and physical development of youth”

(consists of narrower areas: the development of citizenship and patriotism of Russian youth; measures to support talented youth; measures to develop social services);

– “Support for the activities of children’s youth associations” (concerns support for all forms of youth self-organization and innovative activities of adolescents and young people).

Exploring this stage of development of the state youth policy,

it is noted that over time, a state of conceptual and operational crisis became inherent in it, which was largely complicated by problems of an institutional nature.

He refers to them:

− unrealistic fulfillment of the vast majority of the goals and objectives of the GMP in the conditions of the level of resource provision of youth policy by the state that existed in the 1990s;

− lack of interconnection, clear correlation (logical coordination) of the system of goals and objectives of the GMP with other areas of state policy, which led to unjustified isolation of youth issues in relation to other areas of state activity (social policy, personnel policy, issues of ensuring and correlation of socialization and education, problems of adaptive -corrective impact on marginalized groups of young people

and etc.);

− absolute inadequacy of the number of creative, leisure, sports, adaptation and other institutions for working with youth, as well as the lack of areas of their activities that adequately meet the needs, interests and problems of the younger generation;

− low degree of interdepartmental integration in the practical activities of the relevant government bodies in the field of GMP;

− a tangible predominance in the activities of GMP entities and their institutions at the local, regional, federal levels of two main approaches:

1) unsystematic – “event” (creative and leisure);

2) compensatory (social protection, emphasis on solving the problems of social and labor adaptation of young people, etc.);

− low degree of financial and staffing of the GMP;

− the absence at the federal level and in most subjects of the Russian Federation of a system of diagnostics and comprehensive social monitoring of the state of the youth environment;

− the inefficiency of the approach related to the implementation of the GMP through cooperation with youth public associations (statutory financial and other practical support for their activities was provided by the state), which did not correspond to the degree of organizational maturity, real scale, and productivity of current work;

− weak use of the institutions and mechanisms of the social partnership system to improve the efficiency of the GMF implementation through coordination and integration of the efforts of the state, employers, trade unions.

The presence of crisis phenomena in the field of GMP of the stage under consideration is also evidenced by the instability of the functioning of state bodies implementing youth policy, due to an almost permanent change in their status, the uncertainty of departmental affiliation, and the reorganization of the structure of state and, as a result, municipal government.

Suffice it to say that any major changes in the structure of the Government of the Russian Federation, as a rule, were accompanied by a change in the status of the body for youth affairs.

A similar situation was typical for the level of subjects of the Russian Federation and municipalities.

So, in 1996, the status of the Committee for Youth Affairs of the Russian Federation was raised – it was

transformed into the State Committee of the Russian Federation for Youth Affairs. According to the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of April 30, 1998 No.

No. 483 “On the structure of federal executive bodies” and goals

“formation of an effective structure of federal executive bodies

authorities” in May, on April 30, 1998, the committee was abolished, and its functions were transferred to the department for youth affairs, created within the structure of the Ministry of Labor and Social Development of the Russian Federation.

On September 22, 1998, the State Committee for Youth Affairs was re-established, and in May 1999 it was transformed into the State Committee for Youth Policy.

Thus, despite the significant progress in the implementation of the GMF in a number of positions relative to the previous stage, it should be noted that the second period is still characterized by the strongest shortage of financial, personnel, scientific and methodological support of the GMF, the lack of an effective, balanced regulatory framework GMP, a low status at the federal level of the body that coordinates the activities of the state and public institutions in this area.

But at the same time, it should be noted that a more or less systematic approach to the implementation of youth policy is beginning to take shape. During this period, several laws and legislative acts in the field of youth policy are being adopted, some of which are still in force today.

By the end of the 90s, a clear system for the implementation of youth policy was being built, which was implemented at 3 levels: federal, regional and municipal.

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