Russian Federation (1991-1993)

Development of State Youth Policy in Russia after 1991

Youth policy in the Russian Federation in the 1990s, which came

to replace work with youth within the framework of the Komsomol in the Soviet period, pursued the following goals:

− development of ideological pluralism and organizational freedom

public and non-profit organizations of youth as opposed to

ideological and organizational unity of the Soviet era;

− transfer from the West of the content (ecology, tender, human rights movement, etc.) and organizational forms (funds, grant financing, etc.) of work with public and non-profit youth organizations;

− maintaining positive forms of organization of youth leisure (circles, sections, teenage clubs, holidays, sports, entertainment events, etc.).

All these goals were achieved to a certain extent, however, the main problems of concern to young people (housing, education, work, family, lifestyle) remained under special attention.

The main feature of youth policy so far has been that

that the youth themselves were seen as an object of care. The consequence of which

was the growing social passivity and consumer attitude of a significant part of young people to society and the state.

In the history of the formation and development of the state youth policy in Russia, researchers distinguish several stages.

At the moment, it can be considered considering 5 main stages:

1) institutionalization of the new state youth policy

(1990-1996);

2) the stage of relatively stable implementation of the state youth policy (1997-2001), based on paternalistic concepts;

3) stage of stagnation in the implementation of the state youth policy

(2002-2005);

4) stage of the state youth policy, which is based on the concept of partnership, attitude towards young people as an equal participant in the development and consistent implementation of approaches focused on the direct involvement of young people in solving their own problems and national tasks (from 2005 to 2014);

5) the stage that began from 2014 to the present.

Other researchers distinguish 4 periods:

1) the first period – the phase of formation, activation of the GMF (1991-1998)

2) the second period – the period of GMF decline (1998-2005).

3) the third period associated with the delimitation of powers for youth policy and the adoption of the Strategy of the State Youth Policy in the Russian Federation;

4) the fourth period begins with the adoption of a government decree “Fundamentals of the state youth policy of Russia until 2025”. Order dated November 29, 2014 No. 2403-r. Allows to form conceptual approaches to

long-term development of the state youth policy in Russia, including the creation of effective mechanisms for its implementation.

There are other classifications of the stages of formation and development of GMF in the Russian Federation.

As you can see, all researchers note that in the process of its development, the GMF went through several stages. At the beginning of development, all scientists point to a qualitative leap in development, to the intensification of the state’s activities in this area, then to a decline and a stabilization stage. At the same time, many researchers disagree on the time frame of the periods of GMF development.

It seems that the periodization of the formation of the GMP is associated with the adopted documents in the field of youth policy and the mechanisms for their implementation, is as follows:

1) the period of the origin of the GMF (1991-1993);

2) the period of formation (1994-1999);

3) stabilization period (2000-2005);

4) development period (from 2006 to 2014 present).

5) the current stage (from 2015 to the present).

The period of the birth of the state youth policy in

Russian Federation (1991-1993)

In April 1991, the Law of the USSR “On the General Principles of the State Youth Policy” was adopted, which fixed the interpretation of the GMP as an activity of the state, “aimed at creating socio-economic, organizational and legal conditions and guarantees for the social formation and development of young citizens, their most full self-realization in the interests of the whole society”. Equal rights were assigned to all youth organizations and even youth movements (associations without a fixed membership), and rules were established for their participation in the formation (not only implementation) of the state youth policy. The organizational bases for the implementation of the state youth policy were approved, including the creation of a state service for youth affairs and social services for youth. A system of “life on credit” and corresponding compensation youth funds was introduced. All this and much more was first

developed and formed the basis of the legal framework for youth policy in the state.

This period was characterized by the search for answers to the main problematic issues in the transition to a new socio-political system: issues of adaptation and integration of the young generation when entering public life; questions

self-development and self-realization of young people, subject to a decrease in asocial phenomena in their environment, issues of modernizing the legal field of state youth policy in order to create unity of legal conditions and guarantees for young people throughout the Russian Federation.

The preparation and adoption of the Law of the USSR “On the General Principles of State Youth Policy” played an important role in the development of modern youth policy. Under his influence, commissions, departments for youth affairs, etc., began to be created in the structure of state and local government bodies of the Soviet Union.

Thus, by the time of the adoption of the Declaration on the Sovereignty of the Russian Federation, a number of regions already had state bodies for working with youth.

In January 1992, the National Council of Youth and Children’s Associations was established. In accordance with the Charter of the Council, the main goal of the National Council is to unite the efforts of youth and children’s associations of Russia to realize their interests, protect the rights of youth and children.

In the most difficult period of the beginning of the socio-economic transformations carried out in the country, youth policy, despite the presence of a significant number of major problems, received some attention.

So, on August 14, 1992, the Classification of Income and Expenditures of Budgets in the Russian Federation was approved with section 206 “Financing of events in the field of youth policy”.

In September 1992, following the meeting of the President of the Russian Federation B.N. Yeltsin, with representatives of all-Russian children’s and youth organizations, heads of regional committees for youth affairs, he signed the Decree “On priority measures in the field of state youth policy.”

In accordance with this Decree, in order to form and implement a unified state youth policy, as well as to coordinate the activities of federal government bodies in this area, a resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation was issued on the formation of the Committee of the Russian Federation on Youth Affairs in the structure of federal executive authorities .

It was reorganized on September 30 of the same year into the Committee of the Russian Federation for

youth (a body of federal executive power), which significantly increased its status. The main result of the creation of the Committee of the Russian Federation for Youth Affairs was the emergence of similar structures in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation.

Among the main tasks that the newly created Committee was called upon to solve were

select:

− state regulation and intersectoral coordination on youth policy issues. Methodical management of youth affairs bodies in the system of executive power of republics, territories, regions;

− participation in the development and implementation of programs in the field of social development and protection of the rights of young people, support for the socially significant activities of children’s and youth organizations;

− representing the interests of the Russian Federation in matters of youth policy at the interstate level, promoting international youth exchanges;

− preparation of an annual report to the Government on the situation of youth

and other information and analytical materials.

In addition, during the period under review, the “Basic

directions of the state youth policy in the Russian Federation”, on the basis of which the substantive activities of the Committee were built.

Among its main projects in the implementation of the state youth

policies during this period we single out:

− reorganization of the All-Russian children’s centers “Eaglet” and “Ocean”;

− making proposals to the draft resolution of the Government on various

development of small business aimed at the development of youth entrepreneurship;

− development of a number of proposals for the draft “Fundamentals of Labor Legislation of the Russian Federation”, which dealt with the issues of employment of youth and minors;

− development of programs: “Search and support of talented youth”, “Patriotic education of youth”, “Development of children’s and youth sports in Russia”;

− preparation of a report to the Government of the Russian Federation “Russian Youth: Situation, Trends, Prospects”.

June 27, 1993 by Order of the President of the Russian Federation dated June 24, 1993 No. 459-rp

Youth Day was established in the Russian Federation. Decree

Ministry of Labor of the Russian Federation dated November 30, 1993 No. 175 were established and fixed

categories for remuneration of employees of budgetary institutions of bodies for youth affairs.

In the early 1990s, legislation concerning youth and youth policy was adopted. Of greatest importance for the development of the GMP system was the publication of the decree of the President of the Russian Federation ” On priority measures in the field of state youth policy” dated September 16, 1992 and the subsequent adoption by the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation of the resolution “On the main directions of youth policy in the Russian Federation” dated June 3, 1993 .

By itself, this document did not have normative force. The logical development of the foundations of youth legislation in Russia was to be the adoption of a law on youth, similar in content and normative force to the law “On the General Principles of State Youth Policy in the USSR” adopted in 1991 by the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, which immediately lost its normative force after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Union.

Thus, the most important problem that needed to be solved at this stage was the definition of a set of goals, objectives and content of the state’s activities in relation to youth, which was recorded in the previously mentioned Resolution of the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation “On the main directions of state youth policy in the Russian Federation” dated June 3, 1993 No. 5090-1, which determined that the state youth policy is an activity of the state aimed at developing youth public associations, movements and initiatives. It was stated that the state youth policy is carried out by state bodies and their officials, youth associations, their associations, young citizens.

Support for the activities of youth and children’s public associations was defined as a priority and an important mechanism for the implementation of state youth policy.

In general, this stage is characterized by:

– intensive scientific research related to the definition of the content of the state youth policy in the transition period;

− adoption of legislative acts in the field of youth policy;

− creation of a specialized body of the federal executive power and the beginning of the formation of regional and local bodies for youth policy and a network of their institutions;

− extremely limited budgetary financing of this sphere;

− search for mechanisms of state support for young citizens and

their associations, youth initiatives, social protection of the younger generation, etc.

Most of the practical measures implemented within the framework of the state youth policy were limited to the provision of social assistance and support to young people.

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